Compare and contrast membrane lipids in archaea and bacteria.
a. Archaea: Single membrane, Plasma, Glycerol molecules may be on opposite sides of the membrane and are covalently attached,Ether link
b. Bacteria: Single membrane,Plasma,Ester link
c. Eukaryotes: Multiple membranes, Around organelles; Subtle differences in proteins causes organelle has distinct characteristics
Summarize the evidence for membrane fluidity.
Mosaic b/c has proteins, phospholpids etc
Fluid b/c things can move easily around
Lipids in the membrane are fluid and can diffuse laterally
Also rotate around-spin about y-axis
Flip-flop-rarely- Generally needs enzyme
Explain the role of cholesterol in membrane fluidity.
Buffers membrane fluidity- Fits between phospholipid subunits Especially for animals w/ high body temp ie humans
Fill holes caused by kinked hydrocarbon tails-unsaturated
Prevent fatty acids from coming together and solidifying membrane=bad-Keeps F.A from being too fluid and moving apart
Binds to the transported molecule
i. Similar to enzyme
b. Very discriminatory
c. Facilitate diffusion
d. Slower than channel if gate were open
Channel proteins-used for ions
a. Don't bind with molecule
b. Often require certain size/charge
i. Ie NA ones will allows Na but not K
c. Often gated
i. If gated were to go bye bye=> rush due to such high concentration gradient
Movement against a concentration gradient requires energy
a. Can be done by carrier protein
usually result of ATP hydrolysis
Energy comes from:
1) Coupled transporter
a. Pos delta G w/ neg delta G
b. Glucose in-against 10 fold(10x more inside) w/ Na which is going DOWN gradient into cell(cell has less)
2) ATP driven pump
3) light driven pump
What drives the transport of gluten?
sodium electrochemical gradient
Central metabolism summary
3. Citric acid cycle
what regulates channels?
ligand gated (from inside or outside)
mechanical gated (pressure)-toe
Dilipid bilayer membrane can/can't get through
CANT Get Through:
CAN Get Through
travel throuout the cell by budding off and fusing
mosaics of lipids and proteins-Fluid Mosaic
Lots of proteins etc that span membrane
Alpha helix w/ nonpolar A.A.
What are anchors
hold cells together- A hold protein which is also held by one from other cell
have them in ears etc-catch=>cascade of signals=>sent to brain=>interpreting
let things in and out
only allows things that fit binding site
discriminate based on size and electric charge
door w/ force field
movement of water from area of low solute concentration(high water) to high solute concentration
differnece in elextical potential
Explain how membrane potential contributes to transport across cell membranes.
Describe how the membrane potential is generated and maintained in animal cells.
Compare and contrast symport and antiport processes.
symport:an integral membrane protein that simultaneouly transports two substances across membrane in the same direction.
antiport:simutaneously transports two different molecules, in opposite directions, across the membrane
Explain how patch clamping works and what it can tell us about ion channels.
micoroelectrode pressed against cell surface and detaches a patch of membrane current passes through membrane patch and glass microelectrode to oscilloscope which shows current passing in circuit via membrane channels
ion channel opens to allow positive ions to pass which is shown by increase in current-showing open channel-current at 0=closed, can watch ion channel open and close by itself without change of the voltage running across the membrane
Describe how an action potential is generated and propagated in a nerve cell.