Top 200 Midterm Questions

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rclee06
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40792
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Top 200 Midterm Questions
Updated:
2010-10-09 00:13:48
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Part 1
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  1. What are the common side effects for opioids?
    • Constipation
    • Abdominal Pain
    • Dizziness
    • Drowsiness
  2. What do opioids act on?
    Central Nervous System
  3. What are the laws for C IIs in NC?
    • No refills
    • No prescription expiration date
    • Cannot be faxed to pharmacy
  4. Common C IIs
    • Cocaine
    • Hydromorphone
    • Meperidine
    • Methadone
    • Oxycodone
  5. Common C IIIs
    • Testosterone
    • Anabolic Steroids
    • Butalbital
    • Chlorhexadol
    • Hydrocodone
  6. C IVs
    • Alprazolam
    • Clonazepam
    • Clorazepam
    • Diazepam
    • Phentermine
  7. Common C Vs
    • Opium Preparations
    • Some Codeine Products
    • Diphenoxylate Products
  8. What is the difference between Lorcet and Lortab?
    • Lortab= 500 mg APAP
    • Lorcet= 650 mg APAP
  9. What is the maximum dose of APAP per day?
    4 grams/ day
  10. What is the difference between bacteriostatic and bactericidal?
    • Bacteriostatic prevents bacteria from dividing.
    • Bactericidal kills the bacteria.
  11. Describe Penicillin Drugs:
    • most commonly used
    • Used for skin, teeth and UR infections
    • Made from Mold
    • Beta Lactam Antibiotic
  12. What are the common adverse effects with penicillins?
    • Nausea
    • Diarrhea
    • Rash
  13. What are the counseling points for penicillin?
    • Take on empty stomach if possible.
    • Take at even intervals.
    • Finish full course of therapy.
  14. What is the point of adding clavulanic acid to penicillin drugs?
    Protects the beta lactam ring from bacteria by inhibiting beta lactamase.
  15. Explain cephalosporins:
    • Beta Lactam Antibiotic
    • 4 generations (1st: narrow- 4th: broad)
    • 1st: Keflex, Duricef
    • 2nd: Ceftin, Cefzil
    • 3rd: Omnicef
  16. What are the adverse effects of cephalosporins?
    • Nausea
    • Diarrhea
    • Hives
  17. What are the counseling points for cephalosporins?
    • Take on empty stomach.
    • Take at even intervals.
    • Complete full course of therapy.
  18. Explain Quinolones:
    • Broad Spectrum
    • Very Expensive
    • 4 Generations
    • Well tolerated by patients
    • Irreversible nerve damage can occur and spontaneous tendon damage
  19. What are the adverse effects of quinolones?
    • Nausea
    • Rash
    • Diarrhea
  20. What are the patient counseling points for quinolones?
    • Complete full course of therapy
    • Take with 8 oz. of water
    • Skin sensitivity to sun may occur
    • Do not take with antacids, multi-vitamins (separate by 2 hours)
  21. Explain Macrolides:
    • Broad Spectrum Antibiotic
    • Suspension forms and Tablet forms available
    • Antacids slow the absorption
  22. What can macrolides be used for?
    To treat upper and lower respiratory infections, skin infections, certain STDs
  23. What are some adverse effects with macrolides?
    • Diarrhea can occur in almost 5%
    • Can cause stomach upset
  24. What are some patient counseling points for macrolides?
    Take with food to decrease GI upset.
  25. What type of infections are treated with tetracycline derivatives?
    • Upper respiratory infections
    • Acn
    • Pneumonia
    • Skin Infections
  26. What are patient counseling points for tetracycline derivatives?
    • No dairy products, antacids, multivitamins, calcium (Take on empty stomach if possible)
    • Causes yellowing of teeth (should not be used in children < 8 or pregnant women)
  27. What is doxycline used to treat?
    • Rocky Mountain Spider Fever (red bumps/fever)
    • Lyme Disease (bullseye rash)
  28. What is flagyl used to treat?
    Anaerobic bacterial and protozoal infections (deep within the body)
  29. What are some adverse effects of flagyl?
    May cause GI upset
  30. What are patient counseling points for flagyl?
    • May be taken with food to reduce GI upset
    • AVOID ALCOHOL (disulfiram like reaction may occur)
  31. What are Septra and Bctrim used to treat?
    • UTI
    • Chronic Bronchitis
    • Traveler's Diarrhea
    • Acne
    • Bronchitis
    • Otitis media
  32. Which component of Septra are dosages based?
    Trimethoprim
  33. What are the patient counseling points for Septra?
    Take with 8 ozs. of water
  34. What is the typical dosage for diflucan?
    Can be used as a one time dose. May have a repeat dose.
  35. What is diflucan used for?
    To treat yeast infections, thrush, and meningitis.
  36. What is the half life elimination of diflucan?
    30 hours
  37. What drug is typically used in magic mouthwash?
    Nystatin
  38. What age groups are recommended to use tamiflu?
    Older than one year and adults
  39. How long can you show symptoms before taking Tamiflu?
    No longer than 2 days
  40. Can infants < 1 year of age be treated for H1N1?
    Yes, there are specific guidelines.
  41. What is valtrex used to treat?
    • Herpes Virus:
    • Genital
    • Shingles
    • Cold Sores
  42. is it safe to have sexual intercourse when taking valtrex?
    NO!
  43. What are some adverse effects of bactoban?
    • Stinging and pain at site
    • Swelling
  44. How should bactroban be applied?
    Covering the area with asmall film; do not rub in
  45. What forms can bactroban come in?
    Ointment and nasal ointment
  46. What are the two main types of lipids?
    Cholesterol and Triglycerides
  47. What is cholesterol?
    • soft, fat-like, waxy
    • Found in the blood stream and in all the body's cells
  48. Where is the majority of cholesterol produced in the body?
    Liver and Intestines ( 80%)
  49. Can cholesterol be dissolved in the blood?
    No
  50. How does cholesterol effect risk of heart disease?
    Increases the blood pressure which can lead to heart disease and increased risk of other diseases.
  51. What cholesterol is considered "bad cholesterol"?
    LDL
  52. In what direction does LDL carry cholesterol?
    Towards the tissues-- forms plaque by building up on the inner walls of the arteries
  53. Define atherosclerosis
    Clogged arteries that impedes blood flow to the brain, heart, kidneys, etc.
  54. What is your ideal level for LDL?
    < 100 mg/dL
  55. What is HDL?
    • "good cholesterol"
    • high levels protect against heart attack
  56. What is the goal range for HDL?
    Greater than 40 mg/dl
  57. What direction does HDL carry cholesterol?
    Away from arteries to the liver.
  58. What is VLDL?
    • Very low density lipoprotein
    • Contains the highest amount of TG
    • "bad"
  59. What are triglycerides?
    • the chemical form of fat which exists in food and in the body
    • If calories are not used immediately they will turn into triglycerides
  60. What is the goal level of TG?
    < 150 mg/dL
  61. How do HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors work?
    • Reduces intracellular cholesterol levels
    • Increases the clearance of LDL from bloodstream
  62. Is it safe to give these drugs to a pregnant woman?
    NO- should not be pregnant or plan on becoming pregnant while on these drugs
  63. Which two drugs have interactions with grapefruit?
    Zocor and Vytorin
  64. What are common adverse effects of antihyperlipidemics?
    Constipation and Muscle Pain
  65. How long should you conduct liver functions tests after starting a HMG CoA reductase inhibitor?
    4-6 weeks for 15 months
  66. What is the range at which statin drugs reduce LDL?
    30-55%
  67. What is the biggest adverse effect of Niaspan? How can it be prevented?
    • Flushing
    • Can take a bedtime with a snack and with a NSAID

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