Top 200 Midterm Questions
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What are the common side effects for opioids?
- Abdominal Pain
What do opioids act on?
Central Nervous System
What are the laws for C IIs in NC?
- No refills
- No prescription expiration date
- Cannot be faxed to pharmacy
Common C IIs
Common C IIIs
- Anabolic Steroids
Common C Vs
- Opium Preparations
- Some Codeine Products
- Diphenoxylate Products
What is the difference between Lorcet and Lortab?
- Lortab= 500 mg APAP
- Lorcet= 650 mg APAP
What is the maximum dose of APAP per day?
4 grams/ day
What is the difference between bacteriostatic and bactericidal?
- Bacteriostatic prevents bacteria from dividing.
- Bactericidal kills the bacteria.
Describe Penicillin Drugs:
- most commonly used
- Used for skin, teeth and UR infections
- Made from Mold
- Beta Lactam Antibiotic
What are the common adverse effects with penicillins?
What are the counseling points for penicillin?
- Take on empty stomach if possible.
- Take at even intervals.
- Finish full course of therapy.
What is the point of adding clavulanic acid to penicillin drugs?
Protects the beta lactam ring from bacteria by inhibiting beta lactamase.
- Beta Lactam Antibiotic
- 4 generations (1st: narrow- 4th: broad)
- 1st: Keflex, Duricef
- 2nd: Ceftin, Cefzil
- 3rd: Omnicef
What are the adverse effects of cephalosporins?
What are the counseling points for cephalosporins?
- Take on empty stomach.
- Take at even intervals.
- Complete full course of therapy.
- Broad Spectrum
- Very Expensive
- 4 Generations
- Well tolerated by patients
- Irreversible nerve damage can occur and spontaneous tendon damage
What are the adverse effects of quinolones?
What are the patient counseling points for quinolones?
- Complete full course of therapy
- Take with 8 oz. of water
- Skin sensitivity to sun may occur
- Do not take with antacids, multi-vitamins (separate by 2 hours)
- Broad Spectrum Antibiotic
- Suspension forms and Tablet forms available
- Antacids slow the absorption
What can macrolides be used for?
To treat upper and lower respiratory infections, skin infections, certain STDs
What are some adverse effects with macrolides?
- Diarrhea can occur in almost 5%
- Can cause stomach upset
What are some patient counseling points for macrolides?
Take with food to decrease GI upset.
What type of infections are treated with tetracycline derivatives?
- Upper respiratory infections
- Skin Infections
What are patient counseling points for tetracycline derivatives?
- No dairy products, antacids, multivitamins, calcium (Take on empty stomach if possible)
- Causes yellowing of teeth (should not be used in children < 8 or pregnant women)
What is doxycline used to treat?
- Rocky Mountain Spider Fever (red bumps/fever)
- Lyme Disease (bullseye rash)
What is flagyl used to treat?
Anaerobic bacterial and protozoal infections (deep within the body)
What are some adverse effects of flagyl?
May cause GI upset
What are patient counseling points for flagyl?
- May be taken with food to reduce GI upset
- AVOID ALCOHOL (disulfiram like reaction may occur)
What are Septra and Bctrim used to treat?
- Chronic Bronchitis
- Traveler's Diarrhea
- Otitis media
Which component of Septra are dosages based?
What are the patient counseling points for Septra?
Take with 8 ozs. of water
What is the typical dosage for diflucan?
Can be used as a one time dose. May have a repeat dose.
What is diflucan used for?
To treat yeast infections, thrush, and meningitis.
What is the half life elimination of diflucan?
What drug is typically used in magic mouthwash?
What age groups are recommended to use tamiflu?
Older than one year and adults
How long can you show symptoms before taking Tamiflu?
No longer than 2 days
Can infants < 1 year of age be treated for H1N1?
Yes, there are specific guidelines.
What is valtrex used to treat?
- Herpes Virus:
- Cold Sores
is it safe to have sexual intercourse when taking valtrex?
What are some adverse effects of bactoban?
- Stinging and pain at site
How should bactroban be applied?
Covering the area with asmall film; do not rub in
What forms can bactroban come in?
Ointment and nasal ointment
What are the two main types of lipids?
Cholesterol and Triglycerides
What is cholesterol?
- soft, fat-like, waxy
- Found in the blood stream and in all the body's cells
Where is the majority of cholesterol produced in the body?
Liver and Intestines ( 80%)
Can cholesterol be dissolved in the blood?
How does cholesterol effect risk of heart disease?
Increases the blood pressure which can lead to heart disease and increased risk of other diseases.
What cholesterol is considered "bad cholesterol"?
In what direction does LDL carry cholesterol?
Towards the tissues-- forms plaque by building up on the inner walls of the arteries
Clogged arteries that impedes blood flow to the brain, heart, kidneys, etc.
What is your ideal level for LDL?
< 100 mg/dL
What is HDL?
- "good cholesterol"
- high levels protect against heart attack
What is the goal range for HDL?
Greater than 40 mg/dl
What direction does HDL carry cholesterol?
Away from arteries to the liver.
What is VLDL?
- Very low density lipoprotein
- Contains the highest amount of TG
What are triglycerides?
- the chemical form of fat which exists in food and in the body
- If calories are not used immediately they will turn into triglycerides
What is the goal level of TG?
< 150 mg/dL
How do HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors work?
- Reduces intracellular cholesterol levels
- Increases the clearance of LDL from bloodstream
Is it safe to give these drugs to a pregnant woman?
NO- should not be pregnant or plan on becoming pregnant while on these drugs
Which two drugs have interactions with grapefruit?
Zocor and Vytorin
What are common adverse effects of antihyperlipidemics?
Constipation and Muscle Pain
How long should you conduct liver functions tests after starting a HMG CoA reductase inhibitor?
4-6 weeks for 15 months
What is the range at which statin drugs reduce LDL?
What is the biggest adverse effect of Niaspan? How can it be prevented?
- Can take a bedtime with a snack and with a NSAID
What would you like to do?
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