HIST 103

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HIST 103
2010-10-09 23:57:52
medieval history

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  1. Qu'ran
    This is a book of the eternal, uncreated Word of God revealed to Muhammad by the Angel Gabriel between the years of 610 and 632. These ideas were collected, written down, and arranged during the reign of the Caliph 'Uthman (r. 644 - 656). The Qu'ran consists of 114 Suras, which are very opaque and must be interpreted by the followers of Allah. Because Islam is a religion based on the written word, these texts are integral to the second largest religion in the modern world, after Christianity.
  2. Tacitus
    One of the greatest historians of Antiquity, Tacitus wroteGermania in 98, The Histories in 105, and The Annals in 117.The Histories and The Annals detailed Roman history from the death of Augustus in 14 to that of Diocletian in 96. Germaniagives us one of the only written accounts of barbarian society.Tacitus, who was very critical of tyranny and imperialism, gave a favorable view to the freedom of the unconquerable Germans.
  3. Magyars
    These nomadic, central Asiatic horsemen sent raiding parties into central Europe. During the 9th and especially 10th centuries, they launched savage attacks against communities, generally during the spring. They were eventually defeated by Otto the Great at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955 and were allowed to settle around the Danube after converting to Christianity. Magyar is still spoken in the region today, current-day Hungary. The Magyars helped lead to the fall of the Carolingian dynasty
  4. Salic Law (Lex Salica)
    This is a set of laws codified during the reign of Clovis (r. 481-511), but containing elements as old as the 4th century. It was reformatted and used by Charlemagne during the 8th century. It dealt mainly with compensation, or wergeld, for wrongdoings and with civil law concerning land and men. It had disappeared by the 14th century but was still incorporated into local common laws. It impacted future law and common practices and its insistence on primogeniture influenced the French to reject female candidates to the succession of the monarchy.
  5. Empress Theodora
    Theodora was wife of the last "Roman" Byzanine Emperor, Justinian (r. 527-565). She was the daughter of a bear-baiter born into low society and dated through the rungs of the government as an actress and prostitute. Justinian met her and fell in love, making her his empress though she was disliked by many nobles because of her low birth. She had a very strong influence over her husband and he discussed all matters with her before making a decision. She was one of the most influential and powerful women of the Byzantine Empire
  6. missi dominici
    Literally "envoys of the lord," these were religious men sent by Charlemagne (r. 768-814) throughout his empire to make sure his will was being carried out. They were his eyes and ears throughout the vast amount of land he held. They were key to his success as a ruler because Charlemagne himself was not able to deal with all of the problems and projects within the empire. Charlemagne became one of the most powerful and influential men in history because he used the church as a buttress of support.
  7. Battle of the Milvian Bridge
    This battle, fought in 312 outside of Rome, was between Constantine and Maxentius for control of the Roman Empire. The night before the battle, Constantine had a dream that if he painted Christ's symbol, Chi-Rho, on the shields of his soldiers he would win. He did so and was victorious so soon thereafter converted and became the first Christian Roman emperor. He also granted imperial tolerence of Christians, leading to more widespread Christianity.
  8. The Punic Wars
    A series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264-164BCE to determine who would control the Mediterranean Basin. Rome wanted to seek dominance over the Basin. The first punic was caused Carthage to give up Sicily (241 BCE), the second war included the beginning of Hannibal's reign as commander of Carthaginian Spain (221BCE) he was eventually defeated at Zama by Scipio Africanus' attacks (202). Eventually Rome destroyed Carthage
  9. Julius Caesar
  10. Mystery cults
    The mystery cults were religious groups where one must undergo sideposts to learn secrets in order to become members. To become a full member one must learn the final secret. The mystery cults were comprised of four sections including the Cult of Iris (Egypt), the Cult of Orpheus (Greece), Cult of Mithras ( Persia, favored by Roman soldiers, sacrificed bulls), and the Cult of Christianity (Palestine).
  11. De Civitate Dei
    De Civitate Dei was written by Augustine of Hippo in response to pagan claims that Rome had been abandoned. It includes ideas about Christian philosophy. The book shows how history is divided into two parts: the City of God (don't have to care about physical health, promised salvation) and the City of Man. After the bible, it is recognized as the most intellectual work for educated medieval Europeans.
  12. Constantine
    In 330CE Constantine founded Constantinople, which was known as the "second Rome." He was known as the first Christian Roman emperor.
  13. Louis the Pious
    Louis the Pious (r.814-840) was the son of Charlemagne who dreamed of a unified Christian empire. Louis was not as politically astute or militarily successful as his father.
  14. Vikings
    The Vikings were a Scandavian society of landowners, farmers, and slaves. They were known for sailing on longhships which allowed them to travel long distances. They brutally attacked monasteries and convents because of the immense wealth their land and liquid wealth (donations from nobility). No one was spared during raids besides slaves, they also plundered relics. There were widespread raids during the 8th and 9th century,
  15. Aachen
    Aachen, Northern Germany, was Charlemagne's old imperial capital. It had a sense of Byzantine style. Aachen became the center of learning and culture during the Carolingian Renaissance. In 881, only a few decades after Charlemagne's death, the Vikings attacked the city.
  16. Iconoclasm
    Iconoclasm was an 8th century conflict that divided Christians in Byzantine Empire, as well as between East and West. People of within the Byzantine Empire were not able to read so they used images and paintings as a replacement. Iconoclasm was acting as a mean to educated the illiterate. A problem occurred when some people began to worship the icons (idolatry), Emperor Leo wanted the production of icons to cease, while the bishops of the kingdom were for the icons, this caused a split between the two, in effect causing enmity between Rome and Constantinople.
  17. Hagia Sophia
    Hagia Sophia was a Bzyantian church turned mosque turned museum. It was said to have outdone King Solomon. It was the church of Holy Wisdom. It gave both religious and civic pride to the empire. It was the largest church in Christiandom at the time and was the premier structure of Justinian's reign.
  18. Battle of Tours-Poitiers
    Battle of Tours-Poitiers (732CE)
  19. barter economy
    A barter economy is where goods or services are traded for other goods or services. During Charlemagne's reign bartering was proven to be less complex and more personal, it shows off skills but only works on a very local level. A sliver mine was found, new coins were printed but barter was more predominant.
  20. asceticism
    St. Anthony (c.250-355) was known for practicing asceticism. asceticism is the practicing of abstaining oneself from different forms of pleasure (usually practiced within the religious realm).