Anatomy Ch20

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Anatomy Ch20
2010-10-09 02:46:21
Anatomy Cardiovascular System Blood

Anatomy The Cardiovascular System: Blood
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  1. What does the Cardiovascular system provides what?
    It provides a mechanism for the rapid transport of nutrients, waste products, and cells within the body.
  2. What are the functions of the blood?
    • 1. Transporting dissolve gases
    • 2. Transporting and distributing nutrients
    • 3. Transporting metabolic wastes
    • 4. Transporting and delivering enzymes and hormones
    • 5. Stabilizing the Ph and electrolyte composition of interstitial fluids.
    • 6. Restricting fluid losses through damaged vessels or injuries via the clotting reaction
    • 7. Defending the body against toxins and pathogens
    • 8. Stabilizing body temperature by absorbing and redistributing heat.
  3. Blood consisted of what two components?
    Plasma and Formed elements.
  4. What is plasma of the blood?
    The liquid matrix of the blood.
  5. What are the formed elements in blood.
    Red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets
  6. The plasma and formed elements constitute _______, which can be ________ for analytical or clinical purpose.
    Whole blood; fractionated
  7. How man liters of blood are in the average adult?
    4-6 liter
  8. What is the average temperature of blood in an adult?
  9. What three terms refer to low, normal, or excessive blood volume?
    Hypovolemic, normovolemic, and hypervolemic.
  10. Plasma account for how much of the volume of blood?
  11. What is 92% of plasma?
  12. What two things does plasma contain?
    Immunoglobulins and proteins.
  13. Why does plasma differ from interstitial fluid?
    Because it has a higher dissolved oxygen concentration and large number of dissolved proteins.
  14. What are the three classes of plasma proteins?
    Albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen
  15. Albumin constitutes how much percent of plasma proteins?
    60 percent
  16. Globulin constitutes how much percent of plasma proteins?
    35 percent.
  17. Globulin include what two things?
    Immunoglobulins and transport globulins.
  18. What are Immunoglobulins?
    They are antibodies what attack foreign proteins and pathogens
  19. What are transport Globulins?
    They bind ions, hormones and other compounds
  20. What are Fibrinogen?
    They are molecules function in the clotting reaction by interacting to from fibrin.
  21. Removing fibrinogen from plasma leaves a fluid is called?
  22. When albumins or globulins become attached to lipids they form?
  23. What happens to Lipoproteins?
    They are carried in the circulatory system until the lipids are delivered to the tissues.
  24. Red Blood Cells (RBCs), or erythrocytes account for how much of the blood volume?
    They around for slightly less than half of the blood volume
  25. What indicates the percentage of whole blood occupied by cellular elements?
  26. What is an elevated hematocrit condition?
  27. RBC's transport what two things within the bloodstream?
    Oxygen and carbon dioxide
  28. Each RBC is what shape?
    Biconcave disc
  29. What is so unique about this shape?
    It gives RBC's large surface area, allowing for rapid diffusion of gases and the ability to form stacks(called rouleaux) that can pass easily through small vessels.
  30. What do RBCs lack which make them unable to perform normal maintenance operations, so they usually degenerate after about 120 days in the circulation?
    They lack in mitochondria, ribosomes, and nuclei
  31. Damaged or dead RBCs are recycled by?
  32. Hemoglobin account for how much percent of RBCs proteins?
    95 percent
  33. Hemoglobin give RBCs the ability to do what?
    To transport oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  34. Hemoglobin is a globular protein form from how many subunits?
  35. Each subunit contains a single molecule of ________, which holds a iron ion that can reversibly bind oxygen molecule.
  36. At the lungs what does oxygen and carbon dioxide do?
    Carbon Dioxide diffuses out of the blood and oxygen diffuses into the blood
  37. What is determined by the presence of absence of specific surface antigens?
    Blood Type
  38. What surface antigens (agglutinogen) in the RBC cell membranes?
    A, B, and D (Rh)
  39. Type A blood is what type of surface antigen?
    It is surface antigen A
  40. Type B blood has what type of surface antigen?
    Surface Antigen B
  41. Type AB blood has what type of surface antigen?
    Surface antigen A and B
  42. Type O Blood has what type of surface antigen?
    It has neither surface antigen A and B
  43. Rh-positive blood has what type of surface antigens?
    Rh surface antigens.
  44. Rh surface antigens are also called what?
    They are called D agglutinins.
  45. Antibodies specific to these surface antigens are called ___________.
  46. What kind of reaction happens, when antibodies within a person's plasma will react with RBCs bearing foreign surface antigens?
    Causing a cross-reaction
  47. White blood cells are also called what?
  48. What do leukocytes defend?
    They defend the body against pathogens and remove toxins, waste, and abnormal or damaged cells.
  49. What are the two classes of WBCs?
    Granular leukocytes and agranulocytes
  50. What is used to find out the amount of each type of leukocyte?
    A differential counts.
  51. What is used to prevent Rh- incompatibility?
  52. What provides a differential count of the white blood cells population?
    A stained blood smear.
  53. What does penia mean?
  54. What does osis mean?
  55. What two things does leukocytes show?
    Chemotaxis and diapedesis
  56. What is Chemotaxis?
    It is the attraction to specific chemicals
  57. What is Diapedesis?
    It is the ability to move through vessel walls.
  58. What Granular leukocytes(Granulocytes) are subdivided into what?
    Neutrophils, eosinophils(acidophils) and basophils,
  59. What percent is circulating and most common WBC are neutrophils?
  60. Eosinophils are what kinda of cells?
    Phagocytes cells which are attracted to foreign compound that reacted with circulating antibodies.
  61. The relatively rare _______ migrate to damaged tissues and release histamine, aiding the inflammation response.
  62. What are Agranular Leukocytes subdivided into?
    Monocytes and Lymphocytes
  63. What do Monocyte include?
    Macrophage, Langerhans cells and microglial
  64. Monocytes do what?
    They are migrating into peripheral tissue become free macrophages, which are highly mobile, phagocytic cells.
  65. What are lymphocytes?
    They are primary cells of the lymphatic system which include T-Cells, B-cells, and NK-cells.
  66. What are T-cells?
    They enter peripheral tissues and attack foreign cells directly.
  67. B-cells do what?
    They produce Antibodies
  68. What do NK cells do?
    They destroy abnormal tissue cell.
  69. Platelets are sometimes called what?
  70. What are Platelets/Thrombocytes?
    They are not cells but are membrane-enclosed packets of cytoplasm
  71. What are Megakaryocytes?
    They are enormous cells in the bone marrow that release packets of cytoplasm into the circulating blood.
  72. What are the functions of Platelets?
    • 1. Transporting chemicals important to the clotting process
    • 2. forming a temporary patch in the walls of damaged blood vessels
    • 3. Causing contraction after a clot has formed in order to reduce the size of the break in the vessel wall.
  73. What do Megakaryocytes produce?
    They produce platelets, membranes, enzymes and proteins
  74. What is Hemopoiesis?
    It is the process of blood cell formation
  75. Stem cells called __________ divide to form all of the blood cells.
  76. What is Erythropoiesis?
    The formation of Erythrocytes
  77. Where does Erythropoiesis occur?
    It occurs mainly within the myeloid tissue in adults.
  78. RBC formation increases under the influence of _______________.
    Erythropoiesis-stimulating hormone (Erythropoietin, EPO)
  79. Stages in RBC development include what?
    Erythroblasts and reticulocytes
  80. What is Leukopoiesis?
    The formation of white blood cells, being in bone marrow
  81. Granulocytes and monocytes are produced by stem cells in what?
    The Bone Marrow
  82. Stem cells responsible for ________ also originate in the bone marrow, but many migrate to peripheral lymphoid tissue.
  83. What are Primary Lymphoid Organs?
    The bone marrow and the thymus
  84. What are included in Secondary Lymphoid structures?
    Spleen, tonsils, and lymph nodes
  85. What Exists when O-carrying capacity of blood is reduced?
  86. What is caused by lack of bone marrow activity?
    Aplastic Anemia
  87. What is the reduction in the number of oxygen-binding sites on hemoglobin?
  88. What is Hemophilia?
    It is due to insufficient production of clotting factors
  89. What lipid accumulation in the blood vessels and blocks the blood flow?