Logical Fallacies

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Logical Fallacies
2010-10-09 13:53:48

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  1. Oversimplification
    reducing a complex issue or problem to overly simple terms
  2. Hasty Generalization
    A conclusion based on insufficient, unrepresentative evidence
  3. Either/Or (false dilemma)
    suggests that only two alternatives exist, when in fact, there are more
  4. Non Sequitur ("does not follow")
    a conclusion that does not necessarily follow from the preceding statements
  5. post hoc ergo propter hoc (coincidental correlation)
    just because two events happen chronologically doesn't mean that one caused the other
  6. Ad Hominem ("to the man")
    attacks the person rather than the argument
  7. Circular Reasoning or Begging the Question
    assuming the thing to be true that you are trying to prove; restating the premise in the conclusion rather than proving or disproving
  8. Appeal to Force
    something bad will happen to you if you do not accept the argument
  9. appeal to pity
    the hearer is urged to accept the argument based on an appeal to sympathy/emotions
  10. appeal to the popular
    the hearer is urged to accept a position because a majority of people holds it
  11. appeal to tradition
    the belief that because something has been done for a long time, one should accept it as being good
  12. Red Herring
    avoiding the main argument by diversionary tactics such as following tangents
  13. Poisoning the Well
    presenting negative information about a person before he/she speaks so as to discredit the person's arguement