Socio 3

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Socio 3
2010-10-09 14:19:53

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  1. anthropology
    social science specifically focused on the study of cultural differences and similarities among the world's many people
  2. Cultures
    consists of the values the members of a given group hold, the languages they speak, the symbols they revere, the norms they follow, and the material goods they create, from tools to clothing
  3. values
    • abstract ideas
    • ex. monogamy
  4. norms
    • definite principles or rules people are expected to observe; they represent the do's and don'ts of social life
    • ex. how couples are supposed to behave toward each other
  5. material goods
    • physical objects that a society creates, which influence the ways in which people live.
    • includes the goods we consume, from the clothes we wear to the cars we drive
  6. society
    • is a system of interrelationships that connects individuals together.
    • no culture could exist without a society. no society could exist without culture
  7. cultural turn
    describe sociology's recent emphasis on the importance of understanding the rold of culture in daily life
  8. sociobiology
    refers to the application of biological principles to explain the social activities of animal's including human beings
  9. subcultures
    small societies tend to be culturally uniform, but industrialized societies are themselves culturally diverse or multicultural
  10. assimilation
    process by which different cultures are absorbed into a single mainstream culture
  11. multiculturalism
    calls for respecting cultural diversity and promoting equality of different cultures
  12. ethnocentrism
    judging other cultures in terms of the standards of one's own
  13. cultural relativism
    the practice of judging a society by its own standards
  14. cultural universals
    when human behavior is found in virtually all societies
  15. language
    primary vehicle of meaning and communication in a society, language is a system of symbols that represent objects and abstract thoughts
  16. marriage
    is cultural universal, as are relgious rituals and property rights
  17. linguistic relativity hypothesis
    • a hypothesis based on the theories of Sapir and Whorf that perceptions are relative to language
    • argues that the language we use influences our perceptions of the world
  18. signifier
    any set of elements used to communicate
  19. semiotics
    • study of the ways in which nonlinguistic phenomena can generate meaning-as in the example of a traffic light
    • analysis of nonverbal cultural meanings-opens up a fascinating field for both sociology and anthropology
  20. hunting and gathering societies
    • whose mode of subsistence is gained from hunting animals, fishing, and gathering edible plants
    • small groups or tribes often numbering no more than thirty or forty people
  21. pastoral societies
    • whose subsistence derives from the rearing of domesticated animals
    • relied mainly on domesticated livestock
  22. agrarian societies
    • sovieties whose means of subsistence are based on agricultural production
    • grew crops (practiced agriculture)
  23. industrialization
    • process of the machine production of goods
    • emergence of machine production based on the use of inanimate power resources
  24. industrialized societies
    • strongly developed nation-states in which the majority of the population work in factories or offices rather than in agriculture, and most people live in urban areas
    • discoveries and inventions in one field lead to more in other.
    • the pace of this technological innovation is extremely rapid compared with that of traditional social systems
  25. nation-states
    political communities with clearly delimited borders dividing them from each other, rather than the vague frontier areas that used to separate tradition states.
  26. developing world
    • less-developed societies, in which industrial production is either virtually nonexistent or only developed to a limited degree. The majority of the world's population live in less-developed countries
    • second category are mostly at a much lower level of industrial development and are often referred to as less developed societies
  27. Third World
    • a term used during the cold war to describe developing nations
    • originally part of a contrast drawn between 3 main types of society found in the early 20th century
  28. First World
    • group of nation-states that possesses mature industrialized economies based on capitalistic production
    • countries were (and are) the industrialized states of Europe, US, Canada, Australia.
    • have multiparty, parliamentary systems or government
  29. Second World
    • before the 1989 democracy movements, this included the industrialized Communist societies of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union
    • societies meant the communist countries of what was the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, including Hungary
    • were planned economies which allowed little role for private property or competitive economic enterprise
  30. newly industrialized economies
    developing countries that over the past two or three decades have begun to develop a strong industrial base, such as Singapore and Hong Kong
  31. nationalism
    • set of beliefs and symbols expressing identification with a national community
    • sense of identification with one's people that is expressed through a common set of strongly held beliefs
  32. colonialism
    process whereby Western nations established their rule in parts of the world away from their home territories
  33. instincts
    fixed patterns of behavior that have genetic origins and that appear in all normal animals within a given species