OB Chapter 6

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OB Chapter 6
2010-10-09 14:45:55

OB Chapter 6
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  1. group
    two or more people with a common relationship
  2. team
    a smaller number of people who work closely together toward a common objective and are accountable to one another
  3. groups become teams when:
    • team members share leadership
    • both individual and the team as a whole, share accountability for work of team
    • team develops purpose or mission
    • team works on problem-solving continuously
    • team's measured effectiveness is the team's outcomes and goals
  4. why use teams?
    • more flexible and responsive to changing events
    • ability to quickly assemble, deploy, refocus, and disband
    • creates potential of greater outputs with no increased inputs
    • can be motivational
  5. types of teams
    • problem-solving (process-improvement)
    • self managed
    • cross-functional (project)
    • virtual
  6. problem solving teams
    a group of 5-12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency and work environment
  7. self-managed teams
    group of 10-15 members who take on many of the responsibilities of their former managers
  8. cross-functional teams
    a group of employees at about the same hierarchical level, from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task
  9. task forces
    temporary cross-functional team
  10. committee
    a group composed of members from different departments
  11. skunkworks
    cross-functional teams that develop spontaneously to create new products or work on complex problems
  12. virtual teams
    • uses computer technology to tie together physical dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal
    • use vid conferences, email, online communication links
  13. for virtual teams to be effective, there must be
    • 1. trust established
    • 2. team progress monitored closely
    • 3. efforts/products of virtual team are publicized throughout organization
  14. roles
    set of expected behaviours of a person in a given position in a social unit
  15. role expectations
    how others believe a person should act in a given situation
  16. role conflict
    a situation in which an individual finds that complying with one role requirement may make it more difficult to comply with another
  17. role ambiguity
    a person is unclear about his/her role
  18. role overload
    too much is being expected of someone
  19. role underload
    too little is expected of someone, and that person feels that he/she is not contributing to the group
  20. norms
    acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group's members
  21. most norms develop through
    • explicit statements made by group members
    • critical events in groups history
    • primacy
    • carry-over behaviours from past situations
  22. what makes norms important?
    • facilitates the group's survival
    • increases predictability of behaviours
    • reduces embarrassing interpersonal problems for group members
    • allows members to express central values of the group and clarify distinctive group identity
  23. The five-stage model of group development
    • 1. forming - uncertainty about team structure, purpose, and leadership
    • 2. storming - intragroup conflict, develop hierarchy, individualistic tendencies
    • 3. norming - close relationships, cohesiveness, team identity, common set of expectations emerges
    • 4. adjourning - for temporary groups, attention directed at wrapping up activities
  24. Punctuated-Equilibrium Model is
    for groups that are temporary and have deadlines. They act their own way.
  25. common norms:
    • performance
    • appearance
    • social arrangements
    • allocation of resources
  26. punctuated-equilibrium model, how temporary groups act are:
    • 1st meeting stets group's direction
    • 1st phase of groups activity is one of inertia
    • transition then takes place,at exactly half of allotted time
    • transition = major changes occur
    • 2nd phase of inertia
    • last meeting = accelerated activity
  27. Temporary groups:
    combines forming/norming, period of low performing, then storming, then high performing, then finally adjourning
  28. The two group theories
    • 5-stage theory considers interpersonal process of group.
    • Punctuated-Equilibrium model considers time challenges
  29. team effectiveness
    objective measures of productivity, manager's ratings of performance, measures of member satisfaction
  30. team effectiveness four general categories
    • 1. resources/other contextual influences that make teams effective
    • 2. team composition
    • 3. work design
    • 4. team process (things that occur in team that influence effectiveness)
  31. team effectiveness - Context
    • adequate resources
    • leadership/structure
    • climate of trust
    • performance evaluation and rewards
  32. Team effectiveness - composition
    • skills
    • personality
    • roles
    • diversity
    • size
    • members flexibility
    • preference teamwork
  33. Team effectiveness - work design
    • autonomy
    • skill variety
    • task identity
    • task significance
  34. team effectiveness - process
    • common purpose
    • specific goals
    • mental models
    • managed conflict level
    • accountability
  35. Adequate Resources (context of team effectiveness)
    • teams need support from management and the larger organization to succeed
    • support such as technology, staffing, admin assistance, encouragement and timely info
  36. Leadership and Structure (context of team effectiveness)
    leader's role is creating a team atmosphere, setting clear and meaningful direction for the team, making sure that the team structure will support working effectively, ensuring that the team operates within a supportive organizational context, and provides expert coaching
  37. multi-team systems
    different teams need to coordinate their efforts to produce a desired outcome
  38. climate of trust (context of effective teams)
    • integrity
    • competence
    • consistency
    • loyalty
    • openness
    • all help build trust, important to be effective
  39. Performance evaluation and rewards
    managers should consider group based appraisals, profit sharing, gainsharing, small-group incentives, and other system modifications that reinforce team effort/commitment
  40. Composition
    • how teams should be staffed
    • skills, personality, roles of members
    • diversity
    • size of team
  41. Skills necessary to performa effectively in teams
    • 1. needs people with technical expertise
    • 2. needs people with problem-solving and decision-making skills
    • 3. needs people with good listening, feedback, resolution and other interpersonal skills
  42. teamwork skills
    • orients team to problem solving situation
    • organizes and manages team performance
    • promotes a positive team environment
    • facilitates/manages task conflict
    • appropriately promotes perspective
  43. personality
    people should be selected based on personalities and preferences,a nd team's need for diversity and roles
  44. roles
    • task oriented roles - performed by group members to ensure that the tasks of the group are accomplished. (initiators, info seekers, info providers, elaborators, summarizers, consensus makers)
    • maintenance roles - performed to maintain good relations within group (harmonizers, compromisers, encouragers)
    • individual roles - performed, but are not productive for keeping team on task
  45. task-oriented roles of effective team functioning
    • initiating
    • seeking information and opinions
    • providing information and opinions
    • clarifying
    • elaborating
    • summarizing
    • consensus testing
  46. maintenance oriented roles of effective team functioning
    • harmonizing
    • compromising
    • gatekeeping
    • encouraging
  47. group diversity
    • refers to the presence of a heterogeneous mix of individuals within a group
    • differ in functional and demographic characteristics
  48. advantages of group diversity
    • multiple perspectives
    • greater openness to new ideas
    • multiple interpretations
    • increased creativity
    • increased flexibility
    • increased problem-solving skills
  49. disadvantages of group diversity
    • ambiguity
    • complexity
    • confusion
    • miscommunication
    • difficulty reaching a single agreement
    • difficulty in agreeing on specific actions
  50. size factors of team effectiveness
    • less than ten is the most effective team size
    • too many members = coordination problems, cohesiveness and mutual accountability decline, social loafing increases, more people do less talking in comparison to others
  51. social loafing
    the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively vs. individually
  52. member's flexibility
    • improves adaptability, makes team less reliant on any singly member
    • flexible members are capable of completing each others tasks, lead to higher performing groups
  53. members' preference of teamwork
    • individual preferences should be considered as to not damage teams morale
    • one should prefer teamwork
  54. work design
    • includes variables such as freedom and autonomy, opportunity to utilize different skills and talents, ability to complete a whole/identifiable task or product, and participation that has impact on others
    • these characteristics motivate teams
  55. Process variables that contribute to team effectiveness
    • common purpose
    • establish goals
    • team efficacy
    • mental models
    • managed conflict levels
    • system of accountability
  56. common purpose
    • provides direction, momentum and commitment
    • reflexivity - a team characteristic of reflecting on and adjusting the master plan when necessary
  57. specific goals
    • energizes team
    • clear communication
    • turns team purpose into specific, measurable, realistic goals
    • milestones allow focus
  58. team efficacy
    • confidence/belief = effective
    • cohesiveness -> degree to which team members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay on the team
  59. cohesiveness and performance norms = productivity levels
    • high cohesiveness + high performance norms = high productivity
    • high cohesiveness + low perf norms = low productivity
    • low cohesiveness + high perf norms = moderate productivity
    • low cohesiveness + low perf norms = moderate to low productivity
  60. Mental models
    • knowledge/beliefs about how the work gets done
    • must have common/accurate models
  61. managed level of conflict
    • conflict can be good
    • usually bad = interpersonal incompatibilities, tensions and animosity
    • no conflict = less effective team
    • appropriate level of conflict is optimum
    • avoiding conflict = lower performance, forgetting key issues, and unaware of important situation aspects
  62. reducing team conflict
    • more info, not less, for debate on basis of acts
    • have multiple alternatives to enrich debate
    • develop agreed upon goals
    • use humour
    • maintain balanced power structure
    • resolve issues without forcing consensus
  63. accountability
    • making members individually and jointly accountable for the team's success
    • (purpose, goals and approach)
    • clearly defined responsibilities = important
  64. 3 ways to test if teams are necessary
    • 1. can the work be done by more than one person?
    • 2. does the work create a common purpose of set of goals fo rthe people in the group that is more than the sum of individual goals
    • 3. are the members of the group interdependent?