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A person’s awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at any given moment, which is used to organize behavior
A cycle of bodily rhythm that occurs over a 24-HR period
Daily clock, how is it regulated?
Light/dark outside and sleep wake cycle
What is the brain structure that is partially responsible?
Stages of sleep:
Stage 1: Light sleep
Stage 2: sleep spindles
Stage 3 & 4: Delta waves roll in
Non-REM Sleep: any of the stages of sleep that do not include REM, much deeper sleep, more restful kind of sleep, in non-REM sleep the person’s body is free to move around
REM ( rapid eye movement): stage of sleep in which the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids and the person is typically experiencing a dream, REM sleep is a relatively active type of sleep when most of a person’s dreaming takes place, the voluntary muscles are inhibited, meaning that the person in REM sleep moves very little
The first stage of sleep occurs when you first go to bed. You enter a restful state in which you are mostly asleep, but are still easy to wake. Your eyes will move slowly as you drift in a semiconscious state. Sometimes sleepers will experience "sleep starts" where sudden contractions of the muscles, called hypnic myoclonia or myoclonic jerks, cause a feeling of falling. As you drift into sleep your brain waves slow even further than while relaxing, drifting into a slower frequency, higher amplitude wave called a Theta wave. Usually stage 1 sleep does not last very long.
Stage 2 sleep is deeper than stage 1. Your eyes stop moving and your brain waves slow down. Occasional bursts of fast brain activity called sleep spindles and periods of greater wave amplitude called K complexes are typical of stage 2 sleep. Most of the brain waves are Theta waves in stage 2 sleep. Like stage 1 sleep, stage 2 sleep does not last more than a few minutes.
As you drift deeper into sleep your brain will settle into a slow pattern with a high amplitude called Delta waves. This is the beginning of deep sleep. Your body is restful, your eyes are still, and you are deeply asleep. In stage 3 sleep just under 50% of your brain waves are Delta waves, with spikes of higher activity in between the quieter periods.
Much like stage 3, this stage is characterized by Delta wave brain activity. Over 50% of your brain waves are Delta waves, but occasional bursts of higher activity still occur. It is very difficult to rouse a person from stage 4 sleep. Interestingly, it is during stage 4 sleep that most cases of sleepwalking, night terrors, and even bedwetting occur. Stage 4 sleeps lasts the longest in the early part of the night, but gradually decreases in length as the night progresses, until it nearly disappears by early morning.
Dreaming occurs in both REM and NREM, what is the difference?
- dreams tend to be more vivid, more detailed, longer, and more bizarre than the dreams of NREM sleep.
- dreams tend to be more like thoughts about daily occurrences and far shorter than REM dreams
The inability of the voluntary muscles to move during REM sleep
Sleep deprivation: affects on sleepiness.
Become paranoid, seemingly mentally ill from lack of this one stage of sleep.
What happens with REM sleep when a person has been deprived of it?
A person will experience greatly increased amounts of REM sleep the next night
Sleep apnea (include who is more likely to have it?):
Which the person stops breathing for nearly half a minute or more. Obesity people
The inability to get to sleep, stay asleep, or get a good quality of sleep
occurring during deep sleep, an episode of moving around in one’s sleep
Relatively rare disorder in which the person experiences extreme fear and screams or runs around during deep sleep without waking fully
Bad dreams occurring during REM sleep
Sleep disorder in which a person falls immediately into REM sleep during the day without warning
What are some good suggestions for someone with difficulty sleeping?
Go to bed only when you are sleepy.
Don’t do anything in your bed but sleep.
Keep to a regular schedule.
Don’t take sleeping pills or drink alcohol or other types of drugs that slow the nervous system.