Cognitive Science.txt

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Cognitive Science.txt
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Cognitive Science
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  1. Cognitive Science
    • 1. Studies how we think and understand
    • 2. Studies abilities that allow us to think and understand
    • 3. Interdisciplinary approach
  2. What are the tenets of Cognitive Science?
    • 1. Mental Representations exist and can be studies scientifically
    • 2. The mind can be modeled as a computer
    • 3. Interdisciplinary approach
  3. Cognition
    How we think and understand, and the abilities that allow us to think and understand.
  4. Classical Conditioning
    Creates an association between a natural reaction to a stimulus and an arbitrary reaction to a stimulus.
  5. Behaviorism
    States that human behavior is a series of learned associations. Developed by Watson and Skinner.
  6. Information Processing
    States that the mind is like a computer. In a computer there are rules and operations that guide tasks, therefore, the mind can be modeled with computational programming.
  7. Nativism
    States that all knowledge is there from birth. Ex. reflexes
  8. Empiricism
    States that knowledge is gained through experience
  9. Multiple Intelligences
    • Developed by Gardner
    • States that there are different intelligences, such as logical, musical, spatial, kinesthetic, etc.
    • Drawbacks: Some prized intelligences, Talent or Intelligence?
  10. Sternberg's Theory
    • "Goal-Oriented Adaptive Behavior"
    • States that Intelligence is:
    • Things humans are good at
    • Ability to create routines
    • Ability to deal with new situations
    • Categorizing
    • Inferring
    • Planning
  11. Concept
    A mental representation of an object or event and relevant knowledge
  12. Category
    Class of similar things
  13. Value of Categories and Concepts
    • 1. Let's us relate new information to old information
    • 2. Allows us to predict and infer
    • 3. Let's us communicate and learn for indirect experiences
  14. Classical Catergorization
    • States that classification is hierarchical, in trees
    • All members share features necessary and sufficient (minimum and required to be included)
  15. Prototype Categorization
    • Hierarchical
    • Members share features, but not every member must have every trait.
    • Family resemblance.
    • More traits>more typical, most typical>Prototype
    • Superordinate>Basic Level>Subordinate
  16. Knowledge-Based Categorization
    • States that categories are like scientific method.
    • Develop a hypothesis, gather data, revise hypothesis
    • Good for explaining ad hoc categories
  17. Script
    • Organized knowledge about routine events
    • Used to organize events
  18. Mental Image
    • Non-Symbolic (Modal):
    • -Mental images are like visual perception of real images

    • Symbolic (Amodal):
    • -Perceptual information is encoded into modality-independent form
    • -Easier to write coding
  19. Proposition Theory
    Theory that mental images are processed by changing them into propositions

    Ex. x=pineapple, y=platypus, y>x
  20. Demand Characteristics
    When a person in a research project attempts to guess the nature of the study and acts accordingly, either to prove or disprove the hypothesis.
  21. Sensory Memeory
    • Iconic:
    • Coding: Visual
    • Capacity: Entire visual field
    • Duration: 250-300ms
    • Echoic:
    • Coding: Auditory
    • Capacity: 5 items
    • Duration: 2-3sec
  22. Short Term Memory
    • Coding: Multiple formats
    • Capacity: 7 items +/- 2
    • Duration: Depends on rehearsal

    Chuncking allows you to store more items and increase STM capacity
  23. Interference
    • -Proactive Interference: Earlier information interferes with later information
    • -Retroactive interference: Later information interferes with earlier information
    • -Primacy effect: Where we remember the first information and not the last
    • -Recency effect: Where we remember the last information and not the first information
  24. Long Term Memory
    • Coding: Multiple Formats
    • Capacity: Unlimited
    • Duration: Indefinite

    • -Procedural: Knowing how to do things, like riding a bike
    • -Declarative: -Semantic:Knowing facts, Episodic: Personal experiences
  25. Retrieval
    • Accessing information stored in memory, relies on cues and associations
    • -Encoding: Translated into mental representations
    • -Elaboration: Linking information to things already in LTM
    • -Encoding Specificity: How something gets encoded depends on information available at the time of encoding. Retrieval easier if the same information is available.
  26. Consolidation and State-Dependent Learning
    • -Consolidation: Memories become more stable and resistant to interference. Strengthening of associations happens at cellular level.
    • State-Dependent Learning: Better performance if mood/chemical state is the same during recall as during encoding
  27. Semantic Network Model
    • -Spreading Activation: Exciting one node spreads activation along network to other nodes.
    • -Priming: When something is made more active in your memory. (Bread primes butter). Can be measured.
  28. Modal Model
    • 3 states of information processing:
    • 1. Sensory Inputs
    • 2. Sensory Register (Attention)
    • 3. Short Term Memory (Rehearsal)
    • 4. Long Term Memory
  29. Amnesia
    • -Retrograde: When you can't remember anything from before the injury
    • -Anterograde: When you can't remember anything after the injury, you can't make memories

    Neither affects learned skills
  30. Attention
    • -Exogenous: Unconscious orientation toward a stimulus, reflexive
    • -Endogenous: Conscious or voluntary orientation toward a stimulus
    • -Orienting: Directing attention to a location
    • -Searching: Evaluation environment to determine location
    • -Detecting: Locating stimulus
    • -Vigilance: Remaning oriented
  31. Divided Attention
    Change Blindness
    Visual Neglect
    • Divided Attention: simultaneous performance of multiple attention-demanding tasks
    • Change Blindness: People miss change when it's slow/when distracted
    • Visual Neglect: Hemineglect, Damage to Parietal lobe, Problem of consciousness, failure to notice a part of space.
  32. Phonetics and Phonology
    How sounds of a language are produced and which sounds the language has
  33. Morphology
    Where the breaks in words are and which meanings go with which words.
  34. Semantics
    What words mean

    Semantic satiation: When words are repeated, they cease to have meaning
  35. Syntax
    How words are put together to form sentences
  36. Pragmatics
    When you say something, what inferences can be drawn from the saying of it
  37. Prescriptive vs. Descriptive rules
    Prescriptive: Things you should do

    Descriptive: What is actually done
  38. Relativity and Determinism
    Relativity: FACT Language divides up the world differently, encoding different things

    Determinism: HYPOTHESIS 1. Determines thought and perception, 2. Exerts some influence
  39. Aphasia
    Inability to produce or understand language

    • Broca's Aphasia: Dysfluent aphasia
    • Wernicke's Aphasia: Fluent aphasia
  40. Recursion
    • Running procedure involves re-running process that's part of process
    • Ex. S>NP VP
    • NP>N
    • VP>NP VP
  41. Communicative Intention
    Intention to change another person's mental state via communicative signal
  42. Gesture
    • Meaningful motion of hands/body/arms
    • Emblems: glossable, from convention, not universal
    • Co-speech: universal, occur with speech, iconic
  43. Iconicity
    Perceived similarity between two things
  44. Commonalities between signed languages and gestures
    N/A
  45. Equipotentiality
    Whole brain is involved in mental activity
  46. Functional Specialization
    • Localization
    • Difference parts of the brain are involved with different abilities.
  47. Brain Structures
    • Brain Stem: Life Support
    • Limbic System: Hypothalamus and Pituitary-Homeostais
    • Amygdala-Survival Emotions
    • Hippocampus-Memory
    • Cerebellum: Coordinates motion
    • Thalmus: Relays sensory information
    • Basal Ganglia: Motor control
  48. Cortex
    Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Parietal Lobe

    • Superior (Dorsal), Anterior, Inferior (Ventral), Posterior
    • Medial, Lateral
  49. Neuron
    • Action Potential: Firing, Electrical impulses that pass along axon to terminal buttons
    • Causes release of neurotransmitters from terminal buttons

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