Word Roots

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
40901
Filename:
Word Roots
Updated:
2010-10-09 17:54:11
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AP Bio Word Roots
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Description:
Word Roots Ch 6, 7, 8
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  1. amphi-
    dual (amphipathic molecule: a molecule that has both a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic region)
  2. aqua-
    Water
  3. -pori
    a small opening (aquaporin: a transport protein in the plasma membrane of a plant or animal cell that specifically facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane)
  4. co-
    together
  5. trans-
    across
  6. electro-
    electricity
  7. -genic
    producing (electrogenic pump: an ion transport protein generating voltage across a membrane)
  8. endo-
    inner; within
  9. cyto-
    cell (endocytosis: the movement of materials into a cell. Cell-eating)
  10. exo-
    outer (exocytosis: the movement of materials out of a cell)
  11. hyper-
    exceeding
  12. -tonus
    tension (hypertonic: a solution with a higher concentration of solutes)
  13. hypo-
    lower (hypotonic: a solution with a lower concentration of solutes)
  14. iso-
    same; (isotonic: solutions with equal concentrations of solutes)
  15. Phago-
    eat (phagocytosis: cell eating)
  16. pino-
    drink (pinocytosis: cell drinking)
  17. plasm-
    molded
  18. -lyso
    loosen (plasmolysis: a phenomenon in walled cells in which the cytoplasm shrivels and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall when the cell loses water to a hypertonic environment)
  19. allo-
    different (allosteric site: a specific receptor site on some part of an enzyme molecule remote from the active site)
  20. ana-
    up (anabolic pathway: a metabolic pathway that consumes energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones)
  21. bio-
    life (bioenergetics: the study of how organisms manage their energy resources)
  22. cata-
    down (catabolic pathway: a metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler ones)
  23. endo- (ch. 8)
    within (endergonic reaction: a reaction that absorbs free energy from its surroundings)
  24. ex-
    out (exergonic reaction: a reaction that proceeds with a net release of free energy)
  25. kinet-
    movement (kinetic energy: the energy of motion)
  26. therm-
    heat (thermodynamics: the study of the energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter)
  27. centro-
    the center
  28. -soma
    a body (centrosome: material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells and important during cell division)
  29. chloro-
    green (chloroplast: the site of photosynthesis in plants and eukaryotic algae)
  30. cili-
    hair (cilium: a short hair-like cellular appendage with a microtubule core)
  31. cyto-
    cell (cytosol: a semifluid medium in a cell in which are located organelles)
  32. -ell
    small (organelle: a small formed body with a specialized function found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells)
  33. endo- (ch. 6)
    inner (endomembrane system: the system of membranes within a cell that includes the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and the plasma membrane)
  34. eu-
    true (eukaryotic cell: a cell that has a true nucleus)
  35. extra-
    outside (extracellular matrix: the substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded)
  36. flagell-
    whip(flagellum: a long whip-like cellular appendage that moves cells)
  37. glyco-
    sweet (glycoprotein: a protein covalently bonded to a carbohydrate)
  38. lamin-
    sheet/layer (nuclear lamina: a netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus)
  39. micro-
    small
  40. -tubul
    a little pipe (microtubule: a hollow rod of tubulin protein in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells)
  41. nucle-
    nuleous
  42. -oid
    like (nucleoid: the region where the genetic material is concentrated in prokaryotic cells)
  43. phago-
    to eat
  44. -kytos
    vessel (phagocytosis: a form of cell eating in which a cell engulfs a smaller organism or food particle)
  45. -desma
    a band or bond (plasmodesmata: an open channel in a plant cell wall)
  46. pro-
    before
  47. karyo-
    nucleus (prokaryotic cell: a cell that has no nucleus)
  48. pseudo-
    false
  49. -pod
    foot (pseudopodium: a cellular extension of amoeboid cells used in moving and feeding)
  50. thylaco-
    sac or pouch (thylakoid: a series of flattened sacs within chloroplasts)
  51. tono-
    stretched
  52. -plast
    molded (tonoplast: the membrane that encloses a large central vacuole in a mature plant cell)
  53. trans-
    across
  54. -port
    a harbor (transport vesicle: a membranous compartment used to enclose and transport materials from one part of a cell to another)
  55. ultra-
    beyond (ultracentrifuge: a machine that spins test tubes at the fastest speeds to separate liquids and particles of different densities)
  56. vacu-
    empty (vacuole: sac that buds from the ER, Golgi, or plasma membrane)

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