HUMAN BIOLOGY Study Guide 2
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HUMAN BIOLOGY Study Guide 2
STUDY QUESTIONS TEST TWO
How are phospholipids arranged to make a membrane.
Fatty acids attached to two of carbons, Phosphate atteshed to a third carbom
What are the roles of protein in a membrane?
Receptors to communnicate, imbedded in the membrane, outer surface flexable
What is the cytoplasm?
is the cell like material in which prganelles are suspended. Everything in the cell execpt the nucleolus
Define the term organelle
Little organelle; a structure in a cell that has a specialized function
What is the function of mitochondria?
Uses of fuel of sugar and oxygen, releases ATP and Carbon dixoide, Sausage shaped, outer membrane, Inner folded membrane, site for cellular respration
What is the function of ribosomes?
site for protein production, A cell quickly manufacture proteins required in large amounts, all ribosomes are composed of proteins and RNA molecules
What is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum?
protiens, lipids, and cardroydrates series of membrane, Factory of cells participates in the synthesis of protein and lipid molecules, network of membranes in cells
What is the function of the Golgi apparatus (bodies)?
Thin sacs of membrane, Packaging of material, package into vesicles for transport
What is Lysome
Vesicle containing digestive enzymes
What is the function of a vesicle?
membrane packaging for cellular transport
Describe the nuclear membrane.
Maintains interity of the nucleus and controls passage of materials between nucleus and cytoplasm
special pores for stuff to get in and out
What is chromatin?
DNA fibers coiled around proteins, condense to chomosomes during cell division
What is the function of the nucleolus?
Make Ribosomes, contains DNA, controls of cell function
Define the term diffusion
Random movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration toward one of lower concentration
Which types of molecules diffuse more easily through a membrane?
Non charged particles, small molecules and random movement
Define the term osmosis.
Movement of water through a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. Salt and sugar will not go through
What is phagocytosis?
To big of stuff that can not move through the membrane
cell eating - movement into cells
What is used up in aerobic respiration?
Uses Oxygen, and glucose
Put out carbon dioxide and ATP
What are the products of aerobic respiration?
Energy production with oxygen
Under what circumstances would anaerobic respiration occur in a cell?
No Oxygen and not enough ATP
What toxic byproduct is produced by anaerobic respiration?
Which is more efficient, aerobic or anaerobic respiration?
What is the function of messenger RNA?
make proteins and make messenger RNA
What is the function of transfer RNA?
moves complimentary amino acid into correct positions
What is a codon and what molecules does it code for?
codon three base sequences for amino acid
Name the four steps of mitosis.
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Describe the Prophase
Divide Chromosome, each half call cromtid
Describe the Metaphase
chromosome line to meet in a row, getting ready to divide
Describe the Antaphase
one chromosome goes away and the other goes by spindle fibers
Describe the Telophase
Describe the structure of a chromosome during prophase.
What is the definition of a tissue?
Groups of similar cells that peform a specialized function
Where in the body are epithelial tissues found?
Lines body surfaces, lines internal cavities and organs
What cell shapes are possible in epithelial tissues?
Squamous (flat) cells, Cuboidal (cube shaped) cells, Columnar (column shape) cell
What is the difference between simple and stratified tissue?
simple one layer, stratified several layers
What is pseudostratified tissue?
Appears as several layers, actually is one layer, often contain cilia and contain goblet cells
What three things do all connective tissues contain?
Cells, Ground substance, protein fibers, blood to bone
Produce other tissues parts
Describe Mast cell
Produce Histamine, Stimulate inflamnation
Phagocytosis, eating dead cells
Describe elastic fibers
Most common fiber strength and flexibility