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- 1. Studies how we think and understand
- 2. Studies abilities that allow us to think and understand
- 3. Interdisciplinary approach
What are the tenets of Cognitive Science?
- 1. Mental Representations exist and can be studies scientifically
- 2. The mind can be modeled as a computer
- 3. Interdisciplinary approach
How we think and understand, and the abilities that allow us to think and understand.
Creates an association between a natural reaction to a stimulus and an arbitrary reaction to a stimulus.
States that human behavior is a series of learned associations. Developed by Watson and Skinner.
States that the mind is like a computer. In a computer there are rules and operations that guide tasks, therefore, the mind can be modeled with computational programming.
States that all knowledge is there from birth. Ex. reflexes
States that knowledge is gained through experience
- Developed by Gardner
- States that there are different intelligences, such as logical, musical, spatial, kinesthetic, etc.
- Drawbacks: Some prized intelligences, Talent or Intelligence?
- "Goal-Oriented Adaptive Behavior"
- States that Intelligence is:
- Things humans are good at
- Ability to create routines
- Ability to deal with new situations
A mental representation of an object or event and relevant knowledge
Class of similar things
Value of Categories and Concepts
- 1. Let's us relate new information to old information
- 2. Allows us to predict and infer
- 3. Let's us communicate and learn for indirect experiences
- States that classification is hierarchical, in trees
- All members share features necessary and sufficient (minimum and required to be included)
- Members share features, but not every member must have every trait.
- Family resemblance.
- More traits>more typical, most typical>Prototype
- Superordinate>Basic Level>Subordinate
- States that categories are like scientific method.
- Develop a hypothesis, gather data, revise hypothesis
- Good for explaining ad hoc categories
- Organized knowledge about routine events
- Used to organize events
- Non-Symbolic (Modal):
- -Mental images are like visual perception of real images
- Symbolic (Amodal):
- -Perceptual information is encoded into modality-independent form
- -Easier to write coding
Theory that mental images are processed by changing them into propositions
Ex. x=pineapple, y=platypus, y>x
When a person in a research project attempts to guess the nature of the study and acts accordingly, either to prove or disprove the hypothesis.
- Coding: Visual
- Capacity: Entire visual field
- Duration: 250-300ms
- Coding: Auditory
- Capacity: 5 items
- Duration: 2-3sec
Short Term Memory
- Coding: Multiple formats
- Capacity: 7 items +/- 2
- Duration: Depends on rehearsal
Chuncking allows you to store more items and increase STM capacity
- -Proactive Interference: Earlier information interferes with later information
- -Retroactive interference: Later information interferes with earlier information
- -Primacy effect: Where we remember the first information and not the last
- -Recency effect: Where we remember the last information and not the first information
Long Term Memory
- Coding: Multiple Formats
- Capacity: Unlimited
- Duration: Indefinite
- -Procedural: Knowing how to do things, like riding a bike
- -Declarative: -Semantic:Knowing facts, Episodic: Personal experiences
- Accessing information stored in memory, relies on cues and associations
- -Encoding: Translated into mental representations
- -Elaboration: Linking information to things already in LTM
- -Encoding Specificity: How something gets encoded depends on information available at the time of encoding. Retrieval easier if the same information is available.
Consolidation and State-Dependent Learning
- -Consolidation: Memories become more stable and resistant to interference. Strengthening of associations happens at cellular level.
- State-Dependent Learning: Better performance if mood/chemical state is the same during recall as during encoding
Semantic Network Model
- -Spreading Activation: Exciting one node spreads activation along network to other nodes.
- -Priming: When something is made more active in your memory. (Bread primes butter). Can be measured.
- 3 states of information processing:
- 1. Sensory Inputs
- 2. Sensory Register (Attention)
- 3. Short Term Memory (Rehearsal)
- 4. Long Term Memory
- -Retrograde: When you can't remember anything from before the injury
- -Anterograde: When you can't remember anything after the injury, you can't make memories
Neither affects learned skills
- -Exogenous: Unconscious orientation toward a stimulus, reflexive
- -Endogenous: Conscious or voluntary orientation toward a stimulus
- -Orienting: Directing attention to a location
- -Searching: Evaluation environment to determine location
- -Detecting: Locating stimulus
- -Vigilance: Remaning oriented
- Divided Attention: simultaneous performance of multiple attention-demanding tasks
- Change Blindness: People miss change when it's slow/when distracted
- Visual Neglect: Hemineglect, Damage to Parietal lobe, Problem of consciousness, failure to notice a part of space.
Phonetics and Phonology
How sounds of a language are produced and which sounds the language has
Where the breaks in words are and which meanings go with which words.
What words mean
Semantic satiation: When words are repeated, they cease to have meaning
How words are put together to form sentences
When you say something, what inferences can be drawn from the saying of it
Prescriptive vs. Descriptive rules
Prescriptive: Things you should do
Descriptive: What is actually done
Relativity and Determinism
Relativity: FACT Language divides up the world differently, encoding different things
Determinism: HYPOTHESIS 1. Determines thought and perception, 2. Exerts some influence
Inability to produce or understand language
- Broca's Aphasia: Dysfluent aphasia
- Wernicke's Aphasia: Fluent aphasia
- Running procedure involves re-running process that's part of process
- Ex. S>NP VP
- VP>NP VP
Intention to change another person's mental state via communicative signal
- Meaningful motion of hands/body/arms
- Emblems: glossable, from convention, not universal
- Co-speech: universal, occur with speech, iconic
Perceived similarity between two things
Commonalities between signed languages and gestures
Whole brain is involved in mental activity
- Difference parts of the brain are involved with different abilities.
- Brain Stem: Life Support
- Limbic System: Hypothalamus and Pituitary-Homeostais
- Amygdala-Survival Emotions
- Cerebellum: Coordinates motion
- Thalmus: Relays sensory information
- Basal Ganglia: Motor control
Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Parietal Lobe
- Superior (Dorsal), Anterior, Inferior (Ventral), Posterior
- Medial, Lateral
- Action Potential: Firing, Electrical impulses that pass along axon to terminal buttons
- Causes release of neurotransmitters from terminal buttons
Area where two neurons connect, at the terminal buttons
- Excitatory: Makes action potential more likely
- Inhibitory: Makes action potential less likely
Groups of neurons that have become associated
- functional Magnetic Resonance Image
- Measures blood flow to areas of the brain
- Can compare area activation
- Great for where, good for when
EEG and ERP
- Electro Encephalography
- Net of electrodes worn over the scalp
- Measures electrical activity in the brain
- Gives Event Related Potential
- Inability to recognize visually presented object
- Damage to occipital lobe
- Associative: Failure to recognize an object by sight, but recognition with other senses
- Apperceptive: May see object as a collection of parts, not as whole
- Logical: Concerned with correct vs. incorrect reasoning
- Metaphysical: Features of reality, nature of existence/mind
- Epistemology: Nature and origin of knowledge
- Ethics: Evaluation of human conduct
- Solipsism: There is only me
- States that there is only the mind, universe is a construct of the mind/God
- States that there is only the body
- Reductive: Thoughts exist, but are a neural phenomenon
- Eliminative: Thoughts do not exist and Cog Sci will eliminate them. Constructs are only useful if they predict or explain.
- Mind controls the body
- Body controls the mind, brain is only an epiphenomenon of the body
- Thoughts do not control body, and body does not control thoughts. They move in parallel
- Thoughts and body influence each other
- Things can be classified in different ways, by material or function
- Mental states are physical states
- Any thing that can implement these states is a mind
A subjective quality of experience
- Verbal Report
- Attention/Awareness: Hemineglect, Blindsight
- Voluntary Control
Qualitative feel: Qualia
Synchrony of populations of neurons firing that give the perception of a unified thing, or consciousness.
- States that intuition is misleading
- Studies ethics and decision making and intention using quantitative methods.