Midterm

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katknight13
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40930
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Midterm
Updated:
2010-10-10 15:02:05
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Computer Analysis
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Studying for Computer Analysis Midterm
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  1. Created the first digital computer called ABC
    Atanasoff and Berry
  2. Created a computer to break German codes
    Turing
  3. Created memory to hold data and programs
    Van Neumann
  4. Created first large scale general purpose computer called ENIAC for war effort
    Mauly and Eckert
  5. ENIAC
    Electronic Numeral Integrator And Computer
  6. UNIVAC
    Universal Automatic Computer
  7. First commercially available computer
    UNIVAC
  8. Created paper documents idea of higher level programming
    Hopper
  9. Electronic Device operating under the control of instructions stored in it's own memory
    Computer
  10. Allows you to enter data and instructions into a computer
    Input Device
  11. Hardware component that conveys information to one or more people
    Output Device
  12. Case that contains the electronic components of the computer that are used to process data
    System Unit
  13. Holds data, instructions, and information for future use
    Storage Device
  14. Enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and information to and from on or more computers or mobile devices
    Communication Device
  15. Motherboard
    Videos Display Adapter Card
    Disk Controller Card
    Power Supply
    Ethernet Card
    Disk Drives
    Components of the System Unit
  16. CPU
    Central Processing Unit aka Processor
  17. The electronic unit that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer
    CPU
  18. Consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions
    Memory
  19. VDA
    Video Display Adaptor
  20. Two processor cards on one die essentially like having a dual processor system in one processor or two CPU chips working as one
    Dual Core Processor
  21. A collections of computers and devices connected together, often wirelessly, via communications devices and transmission media
    Network
  22. A worldwide connection of networks that connects millions and billions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions and individuals
    Internet
  23. Hardware component that enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and information
    Occurs over cables, telephone lines, satellites and other transmission media
    Communications Device
  24. A series of instructions that tells the computer what to do, 2 names
    Software or Program
  25. Allows you to interact with the software using graphics and icons
    Controls how you enter data and how the screen displays information
    Graphical User Interface
  26. GUI
    Graphical User Interface
  27. Programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and devices
    System software
  28. A set of programs that coordinates all activities among computer hardware devices and allows users to run application software
    Operating sytem
  29. Allows the user to perform maintenance type tasks
    Utility Programs
  30. Can perform all of its input, processing, output, and storage activities by itself
    Personal Computer
  31. Controls access to the hardware, software, and other resources on a network
    Provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information
    Server
  32. A large, expensive, powerful, computer that can handles hundreds of thousands of connected users simultaneously
    Mainframe
  33. The fastest and most powerful computer
    Supercomputer
  34. A special purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product
    Embedded Computer
  35. A collection of unprocessed items
    Data
  36. 5 widely used input devices
    • 1. Keyboard
    • 2. Mouse
    • 3. Mic
    • 4. Scanner
    • 5. Webcam
  37. 3 Commonly used output devices
    • 1. Printer
    • 2. Monitor
    • 3. Speakers
  38. Most used communication device
    Modem
  39. One of the more popular services on the internet that contains billions of web pages
    World Wide Web
  40. Consists of programs that designed to make users more productive and/or assist them with personal tasks
    Application Software
  41. CAM
    Computer aided manufacturing
  42. Networking project by Pentagon's Advanced Research Agency to allow scientists to share info and to function if part of a network were disabled.
    Functional in September 1969
    ARPANET
  43. Awarded ARPANET grant and known as "father of the internet"
    Leonard Kleinrock
  44. Created world wide web, html, http and gave it away to the world
    Tim Berners-Lee
  45. A business that provides individuals and organizations access to the internet
    Access Provider
  46. A number that uniquely identifies each computer or device connected to the Internet
    IP address
  47. The text version of an IP address (www.google.com)
    Domain name
  48. DNS
    Domain Name Server
  49. translates the domain name into it's associated IP address
    DNS or Domain Name Server
  50. Refers to web sites that provide a means for users to interact
    Web 2.0
  51. Application Program that allows you to view Web Pages
    Web Browser
  52. URL
    Unique resource locator
  53. Web page file format
    HTML
  54. Protocol the web is based upon
    HTTP
  55. Finds info related to a specific topic
    Search Engine
  56. Classifies Web Pages in an organized set of categories
    Subject directory
  57. Any application that combines with text
    Multimedia
  58. BMP
    JPEG
    PNG
    GIF
    TIFF
    Graphics formats
  59. GIF
    SWF
    Animation formats
  60. Use of computers to simulate real or imagined environment
    Appears as a 3D space
    Virtual Reality
  61. A program that extends the capability of a Web browser
    Plug-in
  62. FTP
    File Transfer Protocol
  63. Internet standard that allows you to upload and download files with other computers on the Internet
    File Transfer Protocol or FTP
  64. Mailing list in an example of a
    List Serve
  65. VOIP
    Voice over IP
  66. Provides high speed Internet connections using regular telephone lines
    DSL or Digital Subscriber Line
  67. Uses fiber optic cable to provide high speed Internet access
    FTTP or Fiber to the Premises
  68. ISP
    Internet Service Provider
  69. OSP
    Online Service Provider
  70. TLD
    Top Level Domain (.com, .edu)
  71. A Web site that offers variety of Internet services from a single convenient location
    Portal (MSN, Yahoo!)
  72. A collaborative Web site that allows users to create, add to, modify, or delete the Web Site content via their Web browser
    Wiki
  73. A business that gathers and organized Web content and then distributes it to subscribers for a fee
    Content Aggregator
  74. Consists of programs designed to make users more productive and/or assist with personal tasks
    Application Software
  75. Collection of Data, instructions or information
    File
  76. File Extensions
    • docx=WORD
    • xlsx=EXCEL
    • mdbx=ACCESS
    • pptx=POWERPOINT
    • pdf=ACROBAT READER
    • html=HTML, EXPRESSION WEB
  77. Application Software that assists people while performing business activities
    Business Software
  78. Allows users to create and manipulate documents
    Word Processing software
  79. Word Processor Leader
    Microsoft Leader
  80. Allows users to organize data in rows and columns and perform calculations
    Spreadsheet software
  81. Spreadsheet Leader
    Excel
  82. A collection of data organized in a manner that allows access, retrieval, and use of that data
    Database
  83. A row in a column that contains info about a person, product, object, or event
    Record
  84. A column in a table that contains a specific category of data within a record
    Field
  85. Database Leaders
    • Microsoft Access
    • Oracle
  86. Allows users to create visual aids for presentations to communicate ideas, messages and other information to a group
    Presentation Software
  87. Presentation Leader
    Microsoft PowerPoint
  88. PIM
    Personal Information Manager
  89. Application software that includes calendars, address book, and notepads
    PIM or Personal Information Manager
  90. ERP
    Enterprise Resource and Planning
  91. ERP Leader
    • SAP
    • SAS
    • PeopleSoft
  92. Helps users of all skill levels create Web pages that include multimedia and interactive content
    Web page authorizing software
  93. Web Page Multimedia Authoring Software Leaders
    • Adobe Dreamweaver
    • Microsoft Expression
    • Microsoft Sharepoints
  94. Provides a means for sharing, distributing, and searching through documents by converting them to a format that can be viewed by any users (PDF)
    Document Management Software
  95. Software for engineering , architectural, and scientific designs
    Computer Aided Design Software
  96. DTP
    Desktop Publishing Software
  97. Web site that allows users to access and interact with software from any computer or device that is connected to the Internet
    Web app
  98. WBT
    Web Based Training
  99. The main circuit board of the system unit
    Motherboard
  100. The component of the cpu that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer
    Control Unit
  101. Performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations
    Arithmetic Logic Unit
  102. Four basic operations of a processor
    • Fetch
    • Decode
    • Execute
    • Store
  103. Processor begins fetching a second instruction before completing the cycle for the first
    Pipelining
  104. 1st important measurement of a computer, controls the timing of all computer operations, measured in gigahertz
    System Clock
  105. Using multiple processors simultaneously to execute a single task
    Parallel processing
  106. Signals that are continuous and vary in strength and quality
    Analog
  107. Signals that are in one of tow states, on or off
    Digital
  108. 8 bits equals a
    Bite
  109. The most widely used coding scheme to represent data
    ASCII
  110. 2nd most important measurement for a computer, consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions and the results of processing the data
    Memory
  111. Memory that loses it's contents when the power is turned off
    Volatile
  112. Does not lose contents when power is removed
    Nonvolatile
  113. Speeds the processes of the computer because it stores frequently used data and instructions
    Memory Cache
  114. ROM
    Read only memory
  115. Refers to memory chips storing permanent data and instructions
    Read only memory or ROM
  116. The amount of time it takes the processor to read from memory
    Access Time, Measured in nanoseconds
  117. A socket on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card
    Expansion Slot
  118. Enhances functions of a component of the system unit
    Adapter card like VDA, NIC
  119. Memory cards
    USB
    Flash memory
  120. Allows the various devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other
    Bus
  121. 3rd important measurement of the computer, the number of bits the processor can interpret and execute at a given time
    Word size
  122. An opening inside the system unit in which you can install additional equipment
    Bay
  123. RAM
    Random Access Memory (Volatile, Main Memory)
  124. ROM
    Read Only Memory (Nonvolatile, stores permanent info)
  125. A Nonvolatile form of memory that can be erased electronically and rewritten
    Easy to update
    Flash Memory
  126. Any data and instructions entered into the memory of a computer
    Input
  127. Incorporates comfort, efficiency, and safety into the design of the workplace
    Ergonomics
  128. An input device that allows a user to control a pointer on a screen
    Pointing Device
  129. The number of horizontal and vertical pictures in a display device
    Resolution (The higher the better)
  130. Synthetic sound to and from computer
    MIDI
  131. OCR
    Optical Character Recognition
  132. Involves reading characters from ordinary documents
    OCR or optical character recognition
  133. OMR
    Optical Mark Recognition
  134. Reads hand drawn marks and matches the patterns of light
    OMR or optical mark recognition
  135. RFID
    • Radio Frequency ID
    • Uses radio signals to communicate with a tag attached to an object
  136. MICR
    • Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
    • (Checks)
  137. Data that has been processed into a useful form
    Output
  138. Primary source of output
    Monitor
  139. LCD
    Liquid crystal display
  140. Display devices that use gas plasma tech and offer large screen sizes
    Plasma
  141. CRT
    Cathode Ray Tube (larger footprint than LCD monitors)
  142. A printer that forms characters and graphics on a piece of paper without actually striking it
    Ink Jet
    Laser
    Photo
    Nonimpact
  143. Used to produce high quality drawings
    Plotter
  144. A printer that forms characters and graphics on paper by a striking method
    Dot Matrix
    Line
    Impact
  145. The physical material on which a computer keeps data, instructions, and information
    Storage Medium
  146. The number of bytes a storage medium can hold
    Capacity
  147. Measures the amount of time it takes a storage device to locate an item, or deliver an item
    RAM is fastest
    Access Time
  148. Contains one or more inflexible circular platters that use magnetic particles to store data, instructions, and info
    Hard Disk
  149. the process of dividing the disk into tracks and sectors so that the operating system can store and locate data and information on the disk
    Formating
  150. Number of sides X number of tracks X number of sectors per track X number of bytes per sector
    Computing capacity
  151. The only source of primary memory in storage
    Disk Cache
  152. SATA
    EIDE
    SCSI
    Disk controllers
  153. Type of solid state media that contains no moving parts
    Flash memory storage
  154. SSD
    Solid State Drives (Flash Memory)
  155. A removable flash memory device that you insert and remove from a slot in a computer, mobile device, etc
    Memory Card
  156. Keep info secret
    Ecryptions
  157. Internet service that provides storage
    Cloud Storage
  158. Storage device that is written an read by a laser
    Optical Disc
  159. Optical Disc that can only be read
    CD ROM
  160. Optical disc that you can write but not erase
    CD R
  161. Optical Disc that is erasable and multisession
    CD RW
  162. The only type of storage that is sequencial
    Tape
  163. 2 Characteristics of Storage
    • Secondary memory
    • Non volatile
  164. RAID
    Redundant array of independent discs (lots of smaller discs actings as one lard disc)
  165. Consists of special purpose chips that control the transfer of data and instructions from a disc, etc, to the computer
    Disc controller

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