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In the brachial artery, the average blood pressure is?
The blood flow in arteries
pulsate (not the same all the time)
In blood pressure heart beat is?
In blood pressure, at rest is?
Muscular activity is required for blood in veins to circulate?
the movement of blood through blood vessels
Valves are used
to reduce backflow
A good muscular pump
is adequate for good blood flow
An intravascular clot
is formed in veins and is due to slow moving blood in the veins
is a moving blood clot that is carried to first capillary bed (lung)
Pulmonary embolism is
a blood clot in the lungs
Stretched out veins due to a large amount of blood accumulation; associated with a valve not working properly and blood not circulating properly; veins that are seen on the surface
In the united states the leading cause of death is
what is the problem with high blood pressure in the arteries?
Arteries can bust and clot forming
what is considered to be high high blood pressure?
140 mmHg or more
How low is too low with regards to bp?
the lower the better, as long as the blood is flowing
Another name for low bp is?
What is Atherosclerosis?
Deposits called plaques that accumulate in the walls of arteries that lead to heart disease
what is a major component of plaque?
Lumen is found in the artery what is it?
opening in the artery due to the thickening of arteriowalls and plaque deposits
An aneurysm is
a weakening of a artery wall
Hemorrhagic stroke is
hemorrhage on the brain tissue
Ischemic stroke is
when a clot stops blood supply to an area of the brain
hypertension; artery rupture; blood clots; plaque movement
What is the concentration of cholesterol in the blood plasma?
At what point is cholesterol considered high?
medicine that is prescribed to reduce cholesterol synthesis in the liver
LDL refers to
Low density lipoproteins that go from the liver to the body cells
HDL refers to
High density lipoproteins and they pick up the the LDL molecules that are left over and take them back to the liver
good cholesterol is considered to be
Bad cholesterol is
found in LDL
Why is LDL considered to be a bad cholesterol?
Because its a atherogenic lipoprotein and it aids in Atheroschlerosis
What helps promote HDL synthesis?
exercise and a healthier diet
Lipids that are made in the liver are examples of why type of process?
Lipids that come from the outside are considered
comes from the gut
The process of moving fluid out of the the capillaries. (Hydrostatic pressure = due to blood pressure more fluid comes out than goes back in)
The process of moving fluid back into the capillaries "osmotic pressure"
What is the effective filtration pressure?
1 mmHg per 1 min
What is edema?
Accumulation of interstitial fluid
True or false
Want plasma proteins to stay in blood instead of outside
How many liters of blood is plasma
The interstitial fluid vol. depends on what?
1. rates of filtration
3. lymph flow
4. compliance of the interstitial compartment
What is the lymphatic system?
a group of vessels that carry excess interstitial fluid to the circulation
What three things lead to edema?
1. decrease plama proteins
2. increase permability of the capillary to protein
3. blockage of the lymphatic flow/drainage
How much blood of the total blood vol is found in the capillaries?
A ring found around capillary beds that opens/closes to allow blood flow?
What is the purpose of breathing?
to get air into the lungs for exchange of CO2 for O2
What are alveoli?
air sacks found in the lungs that have a large surface area
Process of moving air in and out of lungs and exchanging of respiratory gases over respiratory transport and then delivery gases to cells and in turn the production of the gases by cells
Inspired air is comprised of
about 80% Nitrogen and 20% O2
Alveolar air is comprised up of
More than 20% CO2
Space in the respiratory tract that is not functional for exchange?
Anatomical dead space
What percentage of exhaled air is alveolar air?
what percentage of exhaled air is ADSA (anatomical dead space air)?