Pulmonary Disease

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Pulmonary Disease
2010-10-10 13:06:35

overview of various pulmonary diseases
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  1. list 4 examples of defense mechanisms of the lungs
    • 1. upper airway - filtering function
    • 2. lower airway - mucociliary apparatus
    • 3. lymphoid tissues - cellular/humoral immunity
    • 4. alveolar macrophages
  2. define hemoptysis
    coughing up blood
  3. define: dyspnea
    difficulty breathing
  4. define atelectasis
    collapse or loss of lung volume (inadequate expansion of airspaces)
  5. define pneumothorax
    air in the pleural space, leads to collapse of the lung
  6. define pleural effusion
    fluid in the pleural space
  7. define pleural transudate
    low protein fluid caused by increased venous pressure
  8. define pleural exudate
    high protein fluid caused by increased vascular permeability (pneumonia)
  9. list 3 causes of pulmonary edema
    • 1. increased intravascular pressure
    • 2. hypoproteinemia (low protein)
    • 3. vascular damage (from infection or autoimmune)
  10. list 3 predisposing factors to pulmonary thromboemboli
    • 1. prolonged bed rest
    • 2. hypercoagulable state
    • 3. deep vein thrombophlebitis
  11. list 4 examples of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    • 1. emphysema
    • 2. chronic bronchitis
    • 3. bronchiectasis
    • 4. asthma
  12. define emphysema
    permanent enlargement of the small air spaces due to destruction of alveolar septae
  13. explain two types of emphysema
    • 1. centrilobular: involves central portion of the lobule, may progress to bullae most offten associated with smoking
    • 2. panlobular: involves entire respiratory lobule and often involves both upper and lower lobes
  14. define chronic bronchitis
    cough with sputum production at least 1/2 the time each year for 2 consecutive years
  15. what genetic factors can predispose a patient to chronic bronchitis
    cystic fibrosis, a-1-AT deficiency
  16. define bronchiectasis
    chronic infection with permanent airway dilation
  17. define asthma
    irritability of smooth muslce in bronchi and bronchioles leading to reversible contraction
  18. what are 2 major types of pneumonia
    bacterial and viral/interstitial
  19. what is the primary cause of Lobar Pneumonia?
    streptococcus pneumoniae (90% of cases)
  20. describe the progression of pneumonia
    • early stage - "red hepatiziation" purulent exudate with many RBCs
    • later stage - "grey hepatization" exudate with fibrin and macrophages
    • outcome - complete resolution or scar
  21. common cause of viral/interstitial pneumonia?
    viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  22. what bacterium causes tuberculosis?
    mycobacterium tuberculosis
  23. what classic tissue reaction is part of the pathology for TB?
    caseating granuloma
  24. define pneumoconioses
    group of lung disorders caused by inhalation of dusts that induce fibrosis (scarring)
  25. this is the most prevelant occupational disease in the world