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What is Communication?
The act of conveying a message from one person or group to another person or group.
What are the 4 parts of effective communication?
- 1. It occurs when the receiver fully understand the sender's intended message.
- 2. It occurs at minimum costs
- 3. Persuasion- Presenting a message in a manner that causes others to support it
- 4. Noise- anything that interferes with the communication process.
* Noise and listening on part of the receiver are major reasons for poor communication.
To not have poor communication we must be COMPETENT COMMUNICATION-
-Ability to both encode and decode messages in culturally appropriate ways
- - know the rules of grammar, express thoughts clearly and concisely, use adequate and situationally appropriate vocabulary, and express emotion appropriately.
- - listen and be aware of the way you interpret the message
- Any gesture, expression, physical action, or vocal intonation, pitch or volume that communicates a message either internationally o unintentionally.
- * this is the largest contributor to the way we communicate.
- *linked to Limbic resonance.
- * to accurately read nonverbal signals is linked to your capacity to emphasize.
Process of sharing info back and forth between sender and receiver until both sender and receiver feel that the message has been full and accurately conveyed and interpreted.
The process of taking action to help someone say what he or she really means.
* it requires that you clear you mind of other things and focus completely on the person who is talking. Too often we only partially listen
5 rules of active listening
- 1. Listen of message CONTENT
- 2. Listen for FEELINGS
- 3. RESPOND to feelings
- 4. NOTE all cues
- 5. Paraphrase and RESTATE
Is the process of telling someone else how you feel about something that person did or said.
* it is impt to give feedback if you understand the message. A short confirmation can avoid many errors and it will be appreciated by the sender.
Criteria for giving Feedback
- SPECIFIC-be precise, use good, clear and recne examples to make your points
- TIMELY- Choose a time when the receiver seems most willing or able to accept it.
- VALID- LImit feedback to things the receiver can do something about.
- SMALL DOSES- Never giver more than the receiver can handle at one time.
2 ways to improve communication at work?
- 1. Management by walking around
- 2. Channel Richness- the quality of the communication channel
*Web meeting software is improving internet communications by providing real time audio and video. It is prob as good or better than telephone in channel richness.
- the result of info conveyed accurately form sender to receiver.
- *By looking and listening to feedback
- sharing info using the fewest possible resources
- *time money and effort
- The study of the way we use space
- " i am the boss"
- "i am the boss, but lets talk"
- "Forget I'm the boss, Lets talk"
The tendency to consider ones culture superior to any and all others.
* you can communicate better with people of another culture if you take time to understand some of the basics of their culture.
The use of appropriate manners behaviors in cross-cultural situations.
Results when words communicate one message while actions, body language and appearance communicate another
The intentional distortion of info to make it more favorable to the recipient.
-Often done for less than admirable reasons.
Consciously or unconsciously focusing on certain parts of a message and ignoring others
Rigid and often negative biases used to describe or judge individuals based on their membership in a social group
What is a communication network?
The patter of communication among a group of people.
- 1. Internal communication
- 2. External communication
stays within, and is defined in relations to the structure or the organization.
Occurs when member of an organization communicate with people on the outside
- (hub and spoke network) - one person acts as a central conduit for all info.
- - Can be very efficient, because on person controls the floor of info but it can also isolate and limit the contributors of indiv. group members, who communicate with one person rather than a team
Info passes in an organized sequence from one person to the next.
-can be inefficient. The clear structure, however makes the communication process easy to manage as info flows along a clearly defined linear path.
All members of a group communicate with everyone else as needed for maximum flow of info.
-can result in a high level of employee commitment and engagement--people feel as if they are involved and that their contributions are valued. it is equally likely that this network will be inefficient, as info (including contradictory info) can flow in a chaotic manner.
governed by distinct and known rules about who can communicate with whom and how they should do it. - liked to the formalized power relationships within hierarchy.
- communication that moves through channels other than those that have been explicitly defined within an organization.
- -Linked to social networks outside the formal org. structure.
Sharing info among and between co-workers about what is happening in an organization.
- * Manager can spend time moving abour the office everyday, engaging in spontaneous convo with employees
- *increase the accuracy of info in the grapevine, control impact of negative rumors.
The art of creating or delivering a narrative--a description of events that people can relate to, learn from, and remember.
- STORIES ARE:
- simple, timeless, appeal to all, fun
- CAN BE:
- integral, useful for training, empowering, tradition
4 good reasons for planning.
- ACTION ORIENTED-keeping a results driven sense of direction
- PRIORITY ORIENTED- Making sure the most impt things get first attention
- ADVANTAGE ORIENTED- ensureing that all resources are used to best advantage
- CHANGE ORIENTED-anticipating problems and opportunities so they can be best dealt with.
*It is impt to remember that a good plan is flexible.
3 types of planning
Goal Oriented- Determining the activities and step from an existing state to a clearly defined state. May involve forward and backward planing or both
Directional planning- identifying the domain and direction rather than the specific goals
Action Oriented planning- Direction one's attention to the task at hand
Steps in the Planning Process
- –Step 1. Define your objectives Know where you want to
- go; be specific enough to know you have arrived when you get there and how far
- off you are along the way.
- –Step 2. Determine current status vis-à-vis objectives
- Know where you stand in reaching the objectives; identify strengths that work
- in your favor and weaknesses that can hold you back.
- –Step 3. Develop premises regarding future conditions and
- generate alternative scenarios for what may happen; identify for each scenario
- things that may help or hinder progress toward your objectives.
- –Step 4. Make a plan Choose the action alternative most
- likely to accomplish your objectives; describe what must be done to implement
- this course of action.
- –Step 5. Implement the plan and evaluate results. Take
- action; measure progress toward objectives as implementation proceeds; take
- corrective actions and revise plan as needed.
*Notice that planning is a process that includes implementation and control. It not unusual for some managers to generate a plan and then forget it and go on doing what they were doing.
Often seen as the way to plan in organizations- BUT not everyone is goal oriented
* to more and change organizations plans must be both ratinoal and creative, and they must ling mission and purpose with goals and activites
on goal setting can result in too much attention to short term objectives.
Short term plan-
typically created a period of 1 year or less; has a definite end point
Often in place for three or more years; end point not always determined; can be complex and require substantial resources
- used once for a unique situation
designed for repeated, ongoing activities
detailed outline of how goals are to be achieved
Typicaly a far-reaching plan that articulate and syntheaizes mission-driven, strategic goals for a business
plan for providing financial resoureces to support an organizations activities
plan to respond to a crisis or a failed plan; a "back-up plan"
Plan that outline specific actions, time frames, roles, responsibilities, objectives, and outcomes, for particular work projects to be done by one or more people
To ensure plans are dynamic and can be adapted when change occurs is to:
- 1.Clearly ling plans to mission and vision
- 2. include multiple sub-goals that are discrete and individually planned
The purpose which an endeavor is directed; an objective (SMART)
A goal that is created to help attain another, bigger goal.
Help mark progress toward a goal or subgoal
individual actions that support goal or subgoal attainment
Scenario plans (uncertain times)
a dynamic, systematic process in which people envisions all the "what-if' scenarios for given situations and plan for several likely possibilities.
*flexible and adaptable planning models are more likely to generate organizational success
Corporate quality objectives
deliver error-free products that meet customer requirements 100% of the time
Manufacturing division quality objectives
become a preferred supplier by achieving 100% on-tim delivery of all products
Plant quality objectives
Increase percent accepted by 16% to meet customers deliver requirements
Shift supervisor quality objectives
Assess capabilities of machine operations and provide/arrange appropriate training
describes what an organization is, what it does, and what it stands for.
- - articulates its competitive advantage--> anything that positively distinguishes one organization from others
- - creates rationales for working that unifies employees
- Description of what an organization wants to become--its future identity-- which can be realized through the successful accomplishment of its mission.
- -Often articulated as a vision statment
- more logical
- more likely to succeed
How to make a vision statement successful
- SUCCESSFUL-clear, compelling, and accessible
- -both inspirational and aspirational
- -a future that and organization has not yet attained, yet one that can be accomplished with the right planning and strategies
- -employees and customers alike can be inspired by it
In many companies, HR leaders drive this process by doing research opportunities for the executives to engage in convo about the vision
- Any constituent potentially impacted by an organizations actions, either inside or outside the organizations
- Significant influence or importance
- EX. Customers
- Directly affected by an organizations actions
- ex. communities
- Indirectly affected by an organizations actions.
- ex. suppliers/ environmentalies
HR role in plannning
Ensures that the right people are in the right jobs that they are supported by the organization in ways that allow them to help realize the organizations mission vision and strategy
- Starts with a personal missions and vision
- -our dreams feed our personal vision and our image of our ideal self.
- -Hope and core identity are key elements to define fulfilling life plan
A cognitive and emotional, and neurophysiological process that involves thoughts, feelings, and neurological functioning and results in making a judgment or choosing from alternatives.
- Routine in nature that occur with some frequency
- -occur when things are working well within organization- easy seamless and cost effective
- EX. turning your computer one
- sitting at your desk
- Not routine and involve unique info or circumstances.
- -occur infrequently take more time to evaluate, often involve numerous people and stakeholders
- -Have significant implications in terms of personnal time and money
- EX.-choosing to invest in a new product line -choosing to institute a wage freeze-choosing to change the company's logo or website
Alternative courses of action and their outcomes are known to the decision maker
Decision maker views alternatives and their outcomes in terms of probability
Decision maker doesn't know all alternatives and outcomes, even as probailities
Conceptual maps in our minds that allow us to understand and mentally categorize info as we recieve it.
adapting ones cognitive categorization system to allow for new info, new schemas and new ways of understanding ingo
process of integrating or forcing new info to fit existing cognitive categorization systems
- Oversimplified ideas or beliefs that are particularly rigid and difficult to change
- -often apply to people- simplified schemas that attribute a common set of characteristics to all members of a particular group
- -automatic, do not require conscious, often destructive
The Halo Effect
- Phenomenon in which we judge something or someone more positively based on previous positive experience, a single trait or an association with someone or something we admire.
- -Operates at a subconscious level
- IE- atractiveness
- -Both extremely helpful, as they point us in the right direction when making choices, and can get us in trouble when the flood our brains.
- -A key influencing factor in whether a problem, situation or choice is framed in a negative or positive ways
- -tied to our belief system
tacit knowledge, or knowledge that we have access to at an unconscious level.
- - decision making
- - found in the brain.. * distilled from experience and complements rational analysis
- Knowing with out evidence-rational thought
- Memory that links past experience with current situation
Decision making process
- 1. identify the problem
- 2. Establish the decision criteria
- 3. allocate weights to decision criteria
- 4. list alternatives
- 5. analyze alternative
- 6. choose alternative
- 7. implement the decision
- 8. evaluate the decision
identify the problem
Whenever a desire state is not in line with the actual state.
- defining the problem to broad or narrow. dealing with symptoms not the real cause. focusing on the wrong problem to begin with.
Establish the decision criteria
- create a list of those criteria that will help you in a decision-making process
- phrase each criterion as a question towards achieving your desired goal
Allocate weights to decision criteria
- prioritize decision criteria by assigning weights to them based on their relative importance.
- includes thoughts, emotions, and intuitions
desision maker outlines all of the possible choices that can be made. focus on creative thinking. do not make efforts to qualify or compare with alternatives.
- consider whether each alternatives is truly a viable option, or whether it is cost or time prohibitive.
- influenced by- decision criteria that were established in step 2 and also by the weights that were assigned in step 3
Choose an alternative
when no alternative is a best choice-- satisfying or choosing alternatives that is adequate but not perfect
Step 2 decide a preferred course has 2 different outcomes?
Optimizing decision- chooses the alternatives giving the absolute best solution to a problem
Satisficing decision **** LOOK ON SLIDE 14 CHAP 6
Implement the decision
- -Right amount of time, money and resources must be dedicated to carrying out the decision.
- -lack or participation error- the right quantity and or quality of people are not included in the decision making and or implementation process
Evaluate the decision
- it is difficult to evaluate many decisions immediately and evaluation procedures can take many forms.
- -essential step in the process of good decision making.
- -learn form the outcome to improve future decisions to adjust in decision implemented
- Approach to decision making that accepts that all decisions are made under conditions that limit rationality. such conditions include:
- - info will never be complete or completely accurate
- -we cannot always evaluate that quality of the info we get
- -its basically impossible for humans to rationally evaluate all info or all possible choices
- -people are not purely rational; emotions intuitions, biases and the like are always present
- -we simply don't have the time to make decisions to follow the rational decision making process in its purest form
The 80/20 rule
(parento principle developed by joseph juran) principle commonly used as a rule-or-thumb to quickly see possible casual relationships
80% of sales come from 20% of clients... or 80% of company's work is done by 20% of employees.
The disciplined intellectual process of evaluation situations or ideas and making appropriate judgements or taking certain actions.
the reasoning involved in drawing conclusions from evidence or known info
recognition of assumptions
The ability to recognize statements or info that has been assumed to be true or taken for granted
A type of inference that reasons from general premises to specific conclusions
A mental representation of the meaning or significance or a collections of facts
evaluation of auguments
The ability to judged the strength of an argument based on logical criteria
2 Thinking traps
giving too much value to the first piece of info recieved-- avoid this by seeking out a diversity of persepectives that may challenge your values. also generate more than one hypothiesis to explain info you encoutor pursure multiple lines of analysis
Favoring decisions that perpetuate the current situation.
to avoid this questions the value of current situation: is it really good/ right/ the only way? ask yourself whether you would choose the status quo if it wasnt the way things are. dont be afraid
making choices that justify flawed past decision.
to avoid this consider the perspectives of indiv. who werent involved in the earlier decisions. Be tolerant of mistakes. avoid encouraging fear of failure. know when to quit
selectively seeking our info that supports your point of view
To avoid this quesiont whether you are seeking all relevvant eveidence or whether you are favoring only evidence that supports your point of view. seek our voices that argue against you avoid yes men
- process of generating a list of ideas within a group
- 1. gather a group of interest indiv- ask them for solutions to a problem-allow each person to offer ideas without any critique-record ideas
- 2.critique and prioritize
The delphi techinique
- Panel of experts is asked to reach agreement after responding to a series of questions
- 1. focus groups of experts- each make forecasts regarding a topic and provide justification
- 2.forecasts and justifications are synthesized and summarized
process that results in taking feedback and changing behavior, but not changing underlying beliefs about ones self others or the environment.
* many people do now pay attention to leaning from experience
- learning that focuses on changing mental models as well as behavior.
- -deliberating challenging or testing our assumptions on a regular basis