Test #2

Card Set Information

Test #2
2010-10-13 19:34:13
Human Geography

1st AP class yay!
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  1. Population density
    the number of people living per unit of an area (e.g. per square mile); the number of people relative to the space occupied by them
  2. Agricultural density
    the ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
  3. Arithmetic density
    The total number of people divided by the total land area
  4. Census
    A complete enumeration of a population
  5. Crude birth rate
    The total number of live births in the year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
  6. Crude death rate
    The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
  7. Demographic transition
    the process of change in a society’s population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population
  8. Demography
    The scientific study of population characteristics
  9. Dependency ratio
    the number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force
  10. Doubling time
    The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
  11. Epidemiological transition
    Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
  12. Epidemiology
    Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people
  13. Ecumene
    The portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement
  14. Industrial Revolution
    A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
  15. Infant mortality rate
    The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1000 live births in a society
  16. Life expectancy
    the average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live
  17. Medical Revolution
    Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives
  18. Natural increase rate
    The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate
  19. Overpopulation
    The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
  20. Pandemic
    Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
  21. Physiological density
    The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
  22. Sex ratio
    The number of males per 100 females in the population
  23. Total fertility rate
    The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
  24. Zero population growth
    A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero
  25. Brain drain
    Large-scale emigration by talented people
  26. Chain migration
    Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
  27. Circulation
    Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis
  28. Counterurbanization
    net migration from urban to rural area in more developed countries
  29. Emigration
    migration from a location
  30. Floodplain
    The area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends
  31. Forced migration
    permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors
  32. Guest workers
    Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern and Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs
  33. Internal Immigration
    Permanent movement within a particular country
  34. International migration
    Permanent movement from one country to another
  35. Intervening obstacle
    An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration
  36. Interregional migration
    Permenant movement from one region of a country to another
  37. Intraregional migration
    permanent movement within one region of a country
  38. Migration
    Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location
  39. Migration transition
    Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition
  40. Mobility
    All types of movement from one location to another
  41. Net migration
    The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration
  42. Pull factor
    factors that induce people to move to a new location
  43. Push factor
    Factors that induce people to leave old residences
  44. Quotas
    In reference to migration, a law that places maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year
  45. Refugees
    people who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for year of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion
  46. Undocumented immigrants
    People who enter a country without proper documents
  47. Voluntary migration
    Permanent movement undertaken by choice