Socio_Chp4.txt

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Socio_Chp4.txt
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2010-10-10 17:21:56
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Chapter 4
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  1. Socialization
    • Life long process of learning to participate in group life through the acquisition of culture.
    • Learning what the expectations of behavior are in order to adjust and adapt
  2. True of False: The nature of humans is shaped by socialization
    True
  3. True of False: The nature of humans is shaped by socialism
    False
  4. True of False: Nearly all human behavior considered normal and natural is learned?
    True
  5. True of False: Nearly all human behavior considered normal and natural is by nature?
    False
  6. Without socialization, human infants� _______ is also not able to develop.
    Without socialization, human infants� PERSONALITY is also not able to develop.
  7. Harry Harlow conducted what experiment to demonstrate what concept?
    • (Describe and Identify)
    • Harlow demonstrated the necessity of socialization with rhesus monkeys in the sense that even starving, the monkeys will go to warm mom without food for comfort.
  8. Describe the similarities among human isolated cases (Anna, Isabelle and Genie)
    • All three cases lacked a scale of intelligence upon be found
    • Communication did not exist
    • Animalistic
  9. How did Cooley and Mead contribute to sociology?
    Challenged the prominent belief that human nature is biologically determined
  10. Identify Self-concept
    Cooley: an image of oneself as an entity separate from other people
  11. Identify Looking-glass Self
    • Based on our perception of others� judgments of us
    • Product of a three stage process that is constantly taking place
  12. Process of Looking-glass Self
    • What do they see?
    • How do they react? How do they treat me?
    • Do I like the way they react? Do I like the way they treat me?
  13. Describe Mead�s Theory of Development of Self
    Stated that some people are more important to us than others.
  14. Significant others
    People�s whose judgments are most important to our self-concept
  15. Role-Taking
    The process which allows us to take the viewpoint of another individual and then response to ourselves from that imagined viewpoint. A cognitive process that permits us to play out scenes in our mind.
  16. Imitation Stage
    • Begins around 1.5 to 2 years of age
    • Physical and verbal behavior is duplicated
  17. Play Stage
    Children take on roles of significant others one at a time
  18. Game Stage
    • Children learn to engage in more sophisticated role taking
    • Can consider roles of several people simultaneously
  19. Generalized other
    An integrated conception of norms, values, and beliefs of one�s community/society
  20. Id
    Made up of biologically inherited urges and impulses; selfish and irrational; ruled by pleasure principle.
  21. Ego
    The conscious, rational part of the personality; balances the Id and Superego; rules by reality principle
  22. Superego
    The conscience; contains all the �right� and �wrong� ideas we have learned; all the �should� we have learned from society.
  23. Erik Erikson�s contribution to development
    • Described developmental stages that occur from infancy to old age
    • Socialization and personality development are lifelong processes.
  24. Trust vs. Mistrust
    • First Year
    • Faith in the environment and others
  25. Autonomy vs. Shame
    • Age 2 to 3
    • Feelings of self-control and adequacy
  26. Initiative vs. Guilt
    • Age 4 to 5
    • Ability to begin one�s own activities
  27. Industry vs. Inferiority
    • Age 6 to 12
    • Confidence in productive skills
  28. Identity vs. Role Confusion
    • Age 12 to 18
    • Image of oneself as a unique person
  29. Intimacy vs. Isolation
    • Age 18 to 35
    • Ability to form bonds of love and friendship
  30. Generativity vs. Stagnation
    • Age 35 to 60
    • Concern for family, society, and future generations
  31. Integrity vs. Despair
    • Over age 60
    • Sense of dignity and fulfillment; willingness to face death
  32. Jean Piaget�s contribution to cognitive development
    Ability to think, know, and reason develops through interaction with others.
  33. Sensorimotor stage
    Age 0 to 2
  34. Preoperational stage
    Age 2 to 7
  35. Concrete operational stage
    Age 7 to 11
  36. Formal operational stage
    Age 11 to Death
  37. Identify agencies of socialization
    • Family
    • School
    • Church
    • Peer Groups
    • Mass Media
  38. How Goffman contributed to sociology
    Concept of total institutions
  39. Total institutions
    Goffman; places in which residents are separated from the rest of society
  40. Desocialization
    Process of breaking down old norms, values, attitudes and behaviors
  41. Resocialization
    Process of learning to adapt to new norms, values, attitudes and behaviors.
  42. True or False: Family is the child�s first exposure to the world.
    True
  43. Socialization: Schools
    • Controlled by nonrelatives
    • Exposure to objective standards of performance
    • Encourages to develop loyalties outside of family
    • Discipline, orderly, cooperative, and conforming
  44. Definition of Hidden Curriculum
    Informal and unofficial aspects of culture that children are taught as preparation for life in larger society.
  45. Socialization: Peer Groups
    • Not controlled by adults
    • Provide experiences
    • Teaches people how to deal with equals
    • Self-sufficiency
    • Independence
  46. Socialization: Mass Media
    Means of communication designed to reach the general population
  47. True or False: Sociologist agree that mass media are not powerful socializing agencies.
    False
  48. True or False: Sociologist agree that mass media are powerful socializing agencies.
    True
  49. Identify the Marxian View of Media
    • Workers are exploited by being paid less than they deserve
    • Consumers are overcharged
    • Ruling class receives excessive profits
    • Media is manipulation tool by the ruling
  50. Identify the evidence that the media is controlled by the ruling class:
    • Concentration of power in media
    • Agenda-setting power of the media
    • Media�s ability to socialize the population

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