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- Life long process of learning to participate in group life through the acquisition of culture.
- Learning what the expectations of behavior are in order to adjust and adapt
True of False: The nature of humans is shaped by socialization
True of False: The nature of humans is shaped by socialism
True of False: Nearly all human behavior considered normal and natural is learned?
True of False: Nearly all human behavior considered normal and natural is by nature?
Without socialization, human infants� _______ is also not able to develop.
Without socialization, human infants� PERSONALITY is also not able to develop.
Harry Harlow conducted what experiment to demonstrate what concept?
- (Describe and Identify)
- Harlow demonstrated the necessity of socialization with rhesus monkeys in the sense that even starving, the monkeys will go to warm mom without food for comfort.
Describe the similarities among human isolated cases (Anna, Isabelle and Genie)
- All three cases lacked a scale of intelligence upon be found
- Communication did not exist
How did Cooley and Mead contribute to sociology?
Challenged the prominent belief that human nature is biologically determined
Cooley: an image of oneself as an entity separate from other people
Identify Looking-glass Self
- Based on our perception of others� judgments of us
- Product of a three stage process that is constantly taking place
Process of Looking-glass Self
- What do they see?
- How do they react? How do they treat me?
- Do I like the way they react? Do I like the way they treat me?
Describe Mead�s Theory of Development of Self
Stated that some people are more important to us than others.
People�s whose judgments are most important to our self-concept
The process which allows us to take the viewpoint of another individual and then response to ourselves from that imagined viewpoint. A cognitive process that permits us to play out scenes in our mind.
- Begins around 1.5 to 2 years of age
- Physical and verbal behavior is duplicated
Children take on roles of significant others one at a time
- Children learn to engage in more sophisticated role taking
- Can consider roles of several people simultaneously
An integrated conception of norms, values, and beliefs of one�s community/society
Made up of biologically inherited urges and impulses; selfish and irrational; ruled by pleasure principle.
The conscious, rational part of the personality; balances the Id and Superego; rules by reality principle
The conscience; contains all the �right� and �wrong� ideas we have learned; all the �should� we have learned from society.
Erik Erikson�s contribution to development
- Described developmental stages that occur from infancy to old age
- Socialization and personality development are lifelong processes.
Trust vs. Mistrust
- First Year
- Faith in the environment and others
Autonomy vs. Shame
- Age 2 to 3
- Feelings of self-control and adequacy
Initiative vs. Guilt
- Age 4 to 5
- Ability to begin one�s own activities
Industry vs. Inferiority
- Age 6 to 12
- Confidence in productive skills
Identity vs. Role Confusion
- Age 12 to 18
- Image of oneself as a unique person
Intimacy vs. Isolation
- Age 18 to 35
- Ability to form bonds of love and friendship
Generativity vs. Stagnation
- Age 35 to 60
- Concern for family, society, and future generations
Integrity vs. Despair
- Over age 60
- Sense of dignity and fulfillment; willingness to face death
Jean Piaget�s contribution to cognitive development
Ability to think, know, and reason develops through interaction with others.
Age 0 to 2
Age 2 to 7
Concrete operational stage
Age 7 to 11
Formal operational stage
Age 11 to Death
Identify agencies of socialization
- Peer Groups
- Mass Media
How Goffman contributed to sociology
Concept of total institutions
Goffman; places in which residents are separated from the rest of society
Process of breaking down old norms, values, attitudes and behaviors
Process of learning to adapt to new norms, values, attitudes and behaviors.
True or False: Family is the child�s first exposure to the world.
- Controlled by nonrelatives
- Exposure to objective standards of performance
- Encourages to develop loyalties outside of family
- Discipline, orderly, cooperative, and conforming
Definition of Hidden Curriculum
Informal and unofficial aspects of culture that children are taught as preparation for life in larger society.
Socialization: Peer Groups
- Not controlled by adults
- Provide experiences
- Teaches people how to deal with equals
Socialization: Mass Media
Means of communication designed to reach the general population
True or False: Sociologist agree that mass media are not powerful socializing agencies.
True or False: Sociologist agree that mass media are powerful socializing agencies.
Identify the Marxian View of Media
- Workers are exploited by being paid less than they deserve
- Consumers are overcharged
- Ruling class receives excessive profits
- Media is manipulation tool by the ruling
Identify the evidence that the media is controlled by the ruling class:
- Concentration of power in media
- Agenda-setting power of the media
- Media�s ability to socialize the population