Ch. 30 Biology

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patterson911
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41173
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Ch. 30 Biology
Updated:
2010-10-10 18:10:42
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Fungi
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Fungi
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  1. Fungi
    Recyclers, Pathogens, Parasites, and Plant Partners


    • Fungi are more closely related to animals than plants
    • Key features:
    • · Absorptive heterotrophy
    • Some get energy from dead organic matter
    • Saprobes
    • Major decomposers on Earth
    • Some get energy from other living organisms
    • Parasites
    • Some kill and consume prey
    • Predators
    • Some form partnerships with other organisms
    • Mutualists
    • · Chitin in cell walls
    • The clades of fungi exhibit differences in their lifecycles
  2. Microsporidia
  3. Highly reduced, parasitic fungi
    • Charateristics:
    • · Approximately 1,500 species described
    • · Unicellular
    • · Obligate intracellular parasites
  4. Chytrids
  5. The only fungi with flagella
    • Characteristics:
    • · Approximately 1,000 species
    • · Unicellular and multicellular
    • · Most are saprobic, but some parasitic and mutualistic
    • Reproduction: flagellated spores and gametes (not in other groups)
  6. Zygospore Fungi (Zygomycota)
  7. Only one diploid cell in their entire life cycle
    • Characteristics:
    • · Approximately 1,060 species
    • · Some unicellular (“yeasts”)
    • “Yeast”
    • -does not refer to a single taxonomic group
    • -single celled species in the Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota
    • · Others multicellular
    • Multicellular “body” is the mycelium made of tubular filaments called hyphae
    • Hyphae may be:
    • · Septate – divided by septa
    • · Coenocytic – lack septa
    • Zygospore fungi are coenocytic
    • · Mostly saprobic, but some parasitic and mutualistic
    • Black bread mold – a saprobic zygospore fungi
  8. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi
  9. No direct evidence of sexual reproduction
    • Characteristics:
    • · < 200 species
    • · Multicellular with coenocytic hyphae
    • · Mostly mutualistic (with plants)
    • Mycorrhiza = “fungus-root”
    • Mutualism:
    • · Plant supplies carbohydrates
    • · Fungi supplies water and nutrients
  10. Sac Fungi (Ascomycota)
  11. Sexual reproductive structure is the ascus
    • Characteristics:
    • · 64,000 species
    • · Unicellular (yeasts; approximately 800 species) {Saccharomyces cerevisiae : Baker’s or Brewer’s yeast is a sac fungi}
    • · Multicellular with segmented hyphae (hyphae have septa)
    • · Saprobes, parasites, and mutualists
    • Saprobe: Penicillium
    • Parasite: chestnut blight
    • Mutualist: lichens
    • Associations of fungi with photosynthetic cyanobacteria and/or unicellular algae
  12. Club Fungi (Basiddiomycota)
    • Sexual reproductive structure is the basidium
    • Characteristics:
    • · 30,000 species
    • · Unicellular (yeasts)
    • · Multicellular with segmented hyphae
    • · Saprobes, parasites, and mutualists
    • Saprobe: bracket fungi
    • Parasites: ex., some of the most damaging plant pathogens
    • Mutualist: mycorrhizae
    • Another type of “fungus root” (Do not grow inside the root cell)
    • Club fungi produce some of the most spectacular fruiting structures or mushrooms
    • Some are edible
    • A basidiomycete may be the largest organism by area in the world

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