Chapter 4

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Chapter 4
2010-10-10 19:01:03

Human Development
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  1. accommodation
    individual's adjustment of a schema to new information.
  2. androgens
    The class of sex hormones that predominate in males; they are produced by the testes in males and by the adrenal glands in both males and females.
  3. assimilation
    individual's incorporation of new information into existing knowledge.
  4. attachment
    The close emotional bond between an infant and its caregiver.
  5. authoritarian parenting
    A restrictive, punitive parenting style in which the parent exhorts the child to follow the parent's directions and to value hard work and effort.
  6. authoritative parenting
    A parenting style that encourages children’s independence (but still places limits and controls on their behavior); it includes extensive verbal give-and-take, and warm and nurturing interactions with the child.
  7. concrete operational stage
    The third Piagetian stage of cognitive development (approximately 7 to 11 years of age), in which thought becomes operational and intuitive reasoning is replaced by logical reasoning in concrete situations.
  8. crystallized intelligence
    An individual’s accumulated information and verbal skills.
  9. development
    The pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities that occurs throughout the course of life.
  10. emerging adulthood
    The transition from adolescence to adulthood
  11. estrogens
    The main class of female sex hormones, produced principally by the ovaries.
  12. fluid intelligence
    An individual's ability to reason abstractly.
  13. formal operational stage
    The fourth and final Piagetian stage of cognitive development (emerging from about 11 to 15 years of age), in which thinking becomes more abstract, idealistic, and logical.
  14. gender roles
    Expectations for how females and males should think, act, and feel.
  15. habituation
    Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations. Habituation is used in infant research to examine if an infant can discriminate between an old stimulus and a new one.
  16. identity versus identity confusion
    Erikson's fifth psychological stage in which adolescents face the challenge of finding out who they are, what they are all about, and where they are going in life.
  17. implementation intentions
    Specific strategies (such as setting specific plans and goals) for dealing with the challenges of making a life change.
  18. indulgent parenting
    A parenting style in which parents are involved with their children but place few limits on them.
  19. nature
    An organism’s biological inheritance.
  20. neglectful parenting
    A parenting style in which parents are uninvolved in their child's life.
  21. nurture
    An organism's environmental experience.
  22. preferential looking
    A test of perception that involves giving an infant a choice of what object to look at and that is used to determine whether infants can distinguish between objects.
  23. preoperational stage
    The second Piagetian stage of cognitive development (approximately 2 to 7 years of age), in which thought becomes more symbolic than in the sensorimotor stage but the child cannot yet perform operations.
  24. prosocial behavior
    Behavior that is intended to benefit other people.
  25. Puberty
    A period of rapid skeletal and sexual maturation that occurs mainly in early adolescence.
  26. resilience
    A person's ability to recover from or adapt to difficult times.
  27. schema
    A concept or framework that already exists at a given moment in a person's mind and that organizes information and provides a structure for interpreting it.
  28. secure attachment
    An important aspect of socioemotional development in which infants use the caregiver, usually the mother, as a secure base from which to explore the environment.
  29. sensorimotor stage
    The first Piagetian stage of cognitive development (birth to about 2 years of age), in which infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing) with motor (physical) actions.
  30. temperament
    An individual's behavioral style and characteristic way of responding.
  31. Wisdom
    • Expert knowledge about the practical aspects of life.