individual's adjustment of a schema to new information.
The class of sex hormones that predominate in males; they are produced by the testes in males and by the adrenal glands in both males and females.
individual's incorporation of new information into existing knowledge.
The close emotional bond between an infant and its caregiver.
A restrictive, punitive parenting style in which the parent exhorts the child to follow the parent's directions and to value hard work and effort.
A parenting style that encourages children’s independence (but still places limits and controls on their behavior); it includes extensive verbal give-and-take, and warm and nurturing interactions with the child.
concrete operational stage
The third Piagetian stage of cognitive development (approximately 7 to 11 years of age), in which thought becomes operational and intuitive reasoning is replaced by logical reasoning in concrete situations.
An individual’s accumulated information and verbal skills.
The pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities that occurs throughout the course of life.
The transition from adolescence to adulthood
The main class of female sex hormones, produced principally by the ovaries.
An individual's ability to reason abstractly.
formal operational stage
The fourth and final Piagetian stage of cognitive development (emerging from about 11 to 15 years of age), in which thinking becomes more abstract, idealistic, and logical.
Expectations for how females and males should think, act, and feel.
Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations. Habituation is used in infant research to examine if an infant can discriminate between an old stimulus and a new one.
identity versus identity confusion
Erikson's fifth psychological stage in which adolescents face the challenge of finding out who they are, what they are all about, and where they are going in life.
Specific strategies (such as setting specific plans and goals) for dealing with the challenges of making a life change.
A parenting style in which parents are involved with their children but place few limits on them.
An organism’s biological inheritance.
A parenting style in which parents are uninvolved in their child's life.
An organism's environmental experience.
A test of perception that involves giving an infant a choice of what object to look at and that is used to determine whether infants can distinguish between objects.
The second Piagetian stage of cognitive development (approximately 2 to 7 years of age), in which thought becomes more symbolic than in the sensorimotor stage but the child cannot yet perform operations.
Behavior that is intended to benefit other people.
A period of rapid skeletal and sexual maturation that occurs mainly in early adolescence.
A person's ability to recover from or adapt to difficult times.
A concept or framework that already exists at a given moment in a person's mind and that organizes information and provides a structure for interpreting it.
An important aspect of socioemotional development in which infants use the caregiver, usually the mother, as a secure base from which to explore the environment.
The first Piagetian stage of cognitive development (birth to about 2 years of age), in which infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing) with motor (physical) actions.
An individual's behavioral style and characteristic way of responding.
Expert knowledge about the practical aspects of life.