Chapter 4

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Author:
vzhaylo
ID:
41219
Filename:
Chapter 4
Updated:
2010-10-10 22:36:55
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physio anatomy
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last half of ch4
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  1. What are the 4 basic tissue types?
    Epithelial tissue, Connective tissue, Muscle tissue, Nervous tissue
  2. Epithelial Tissue
    covers or lines the external and internal surfaces of the body
  3. Connective tissue
    fills space between other tissues
  4. Muscle Tissue
    contractile properties. Gives mobility and tegulates blood flow.
  5. Nervous Tissue
    permits interaction with the environment and integration of tissue function
  6. What are the functions of Connective Tissue?
    • To provide support strength, elasticity, and incompressibility
    • To provide environment for infiltration of immune cells
    • Importan in defense, inflammatory responses and tissue repair
  7. Cells of connective tissue:
    • Fibroblast: resident cells
    • Adipocytes: (fat cells) and cells that migrate in from blood
    • Macrophages: immune cells derived from blood-borne monocytes
    • Plasma cells: immune cells that develop from B lymphocytes
    • Mast cells: produce histamine- part of defense system- overactive in allergy
    • Other blood cells like eosinophils and neutrophils migrate into connective tissue in injury and infection
  8. Major Classes of Macromolecules of ECM (extracellular matrix)
    • Proteoglycans/ Glycosaminoglycans
    • Fibrillar proteins (eg. collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers)
    • Glycoprotein (eg. fibronectin and laminin)
  9. Major Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)
    • Hyaluronic acid (hyaluronate): unsulfated- synovial fluid, vitreous humor
    • Chondroitin sulfates: may be sulfated- cartilage, bone, heart valves - the most abundant GAG
    • Dermatan sulfate: skin, blood vessels, heart valves
    • Heparin and Heparin sulfate: basement membranes
    • Keratan sulfate: cornea, cartilage
  10. Functions of GAGs
    • Gel-like properties allow GAGs to resist compressive forces
    • Allow rapid diffusion of water soluble molecules through ECM
    • Specifically sequester certain growth factors in the matrix
  11. Proteoglycans
    -A proteoglycan monomer consists of a core protein with GAG side chains
    -
    The major proteoglycan in cartilage froms large aggregates with hyaluronic acid as a backbone
  12. Collagens
    -Characterized by triple helical structure of 3 polypeptide chains
    -Sequence of chains [Gly-X-Y]n
    -X is the proline and Y is usually hydroxproline

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