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What are the 4 basic tissue types?
Epithelial tissue, Connective tissue, Muscle tissue, Nervous tissue
covers or lines the external and internal surfaces of the body
fills space between other tissues
contractile properties. Gives mobility and tegulates blood flow.
permits interaction with the environment and integration of tissue function
What are the functions of Connective Tissue?
- To provide support strength, elasticity, and incompressibility
- To provide environment for infiltration of immune cells
- Importan in defense, inflammatory responses and tissue repair
Cells of connective tissue:
- Fibroblast: resident cells
- Adipocytes: (fat cells) and cells that migrate in from blood
- Macrophages: immune cells derived from blood-borne monocytes
- Plasma cells: immune cells that develop from B lymphocytes
- Mast cells: produce histamine- part of defense system- overactive in allergy
- Other blood cells like eosinophils and neutrophils migrate into connective tissue in injury and infection
Major Classes of Macromolecules of ECM (extracellular matrix)
- Proteoglycans/ Glycosaminoglycans
- Fibrillar proteins (eg. collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers)
- Glycoprotein (eg. fibronectin and laminin)
Major Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)
- Hyaluronic acid (hyaluronate): unsulfated- synovial fluid, vitreous humor
- Chondroitin sulfates: may be sulfated- cartilage, bone, heart valves - the most abundant GAG
- Dermatan sulfate: skin, blood vessels, heart valves
- Heparin and Heparin sulfate: basement membranes
- Keratan sulfate: cornea, cartilage
Functions of GAGs
- Gel-like properties allow GAGs to resist compressive forces
- Allow rapid diffusion of water soluble molecules through ECM
- Specifically sequester certain growth factors in the matrix
-A proteoglycan monomer consists of a core protein with GAG side chains
-The major proteoglycan in cartilage froms large aggregates with hyaluronic acid as a backbone
-Characterized by triple helical structure of 3 polypeptide chains
-Sequence of chains [Gly-X-Y]n
-X is the proline and Y is usually hydroxproline
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