16 - Blood (PP Notes)
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- The River of Life
- fluid tissue
- disease diagnosis
Blood exits the heart via arteries, which branch repeatedly until they become tiny capillaries. Oxygen & nutrients leave the blood & enter the body tissues, & CO2 and wastes move from the tissues to the bloodstream. As oxygen-deficient blood leaves the capillary beds, it flows into veins, which return it to the heart. It is then re-oxygenated and recirculated.
Blood exits the ____ via ______, which branch repeatedly until they become tiny _________. The blood returns to the heart via ______ and then to the _______.
heart, arteries, capillaries, veins, lungs
Blood has both _______ & ______ components.
Cellular components are also called ________.
Living Blood Cells
Liquid components are also called _____.
Plasma without plasma proteins is called ______.
This makes up 55% of whole blood and is the least dense component.
What are the 2 formed elements that, along with plasma, make-up blood?
- 1. Buffy coat
- 2. Erythrocytes
This makes up less than 1% of whole blood and consists of leukocytes & platelets.
This makes up 45% of whole blood and is the most dense component.
Erythrocytes normally constitute about 45% of the total volume of a blood sample, a percentage known as the ________.
Physical Characteristics of Blood include:
- - Sticky, opaque fluid
- - Metallic taste
- - Salty
- - Scarlet (oxygen rich) to dark red (oxygen poor)
- - Heavier than water
- - 5 x thicker than water
- - Slightly alkaline, with a pH between 7.35 and 7.45
- - Temperature 38C or 100.4F (always slightly higher than the body)
- - 8% of body weight
- - 5-6 L in males, 4-5 L in females
Functions of the Blood:
- Distribution: delivers oxygen from lungs & nutrients from digestigve tract to all body cells. Transports wastes from cells to elimination sites (CO2 to lungs, nitrogenous wastes to kidneys). Transports endocrine hormones to target organs.
- Regulation: Maintains body temp by absorbing & distributing heat thru body & to skin surface to encourage heat loss. Maintains normal pH in body tissues, carries body's alkaline reserve (bicarbonate atoms). Maintains fluid volume in circulatory system by regulation of salts & blood proteins (albumin).
- Protection: prevents blood loss by beginning b lood clot formation w/platelets & plasma proteins. Prevents infection. Blood carries antibodies, complement proteins, WBC's which fight off foreign invaders or pathogens such as bacteria & viruses.
- Straw colored, sticky fluid, about 90% water
- 10% solutes - nutrients, respiratory gases, salts, hormones, proteins
- 52% - 62% of whole blood
- Plasma proteins
- Made by the liver
- Albumin, globulins, clotting proteins
60% of plasma proteins; produced by liver, main contributor to osmotic pressure
List the 3 formed elements of blood:
- 1. Erythrocytes
- 2. Leukocytes
- 3. Platelets
T/F --> Erythrocytes have no nuclei or organelles & platelets are cell fragments.
T/F --> Only leukocytes are complete cells.
- 4.3-5.2 million RBCs/mm in women
- 5.1-5.8 million RBCs/mm in men
- no nuclei
- no organelles
- biconcave shape that is maintained by a network of proteins, especially spectrin, attached to the cytoplasmic face of its plasma membrane; spectrin gives them flexibility to change shape as necessary
- Picks up oxygen in the capillary beds of the lungs & releases it to tissue cells across other capillaries thru out the body.
- "Bags" of hemoglobin, over 97% hemoglobin
- Generate ATP by anaerobic mechanisms
- They are the major contributing factor to blood viscosity
Structural Characteristics of Erythrocytes
- Transport respiratory gases (O2 & CO2)
- O2 loading occurs in the lungs, and the direction of transport is from lungs to tissue cells. As oxygen-deficient blood moves thru the lungs, O2 diffuses from the air sacs of the lungs into the blood & then into erythrocytes
Erythrocytes --> The protein that makes red blood cells red, binds easily & reversibly with oxygen, and most oxygen carried in blood is bound to _________.
- Binds w/oxygen
- 14-20 g/100ml in Infants (because they must develop quickly over a short period of time)
- 13-18 g/100ml in Adult Males
- 12-16 g/100ml in Adult Females
Erythrocytes --> Hemoglobin is made up of the protein ______ bound to the red ____ pigment.
Erythrocytes --> Hemoglobin --> Globin consists of _ polypeptide chains - _ alpha & _ beta - each binding a ring like heme group
4, 2, 2
Erythrocytes --> Hemoglobin --> Each polypeptide chain is complexed with a heme group, shown as a circular green structure with ___ at its center.
Erythrocytes --> Blood cell formation is referred to as _______. This process occurs in the ______, which is composed largely of a soft network of reticular connective tissue bordering on wide blood capillaries.
hematopoiesis, red bone marrow
Stem cells, also known as _____, are found in red bone marrow & lymphatic tissue, & are the precursor cells for ALL the types of blood cells.
________ (new cell) & ______ (young erythrocyte) are immature red blood cells, & are usually found in the red bone marrow.
Red bone marrow produces ALL _ kinds of white blood cells.
List the 5 white blood cells:
- 1. Neutrophil
- 2. Eosinophil
- 3. Basophil
- 4. Lymphocyte
- 5. Monocyte
________ & ________ are also produced in lymphatic tissue.
________ are fragments of megakaryocytes.
Erythropoietin - from the kidneys; hypoxic kidney cells
The genisis of red blood cells is __________.
Erythrocytes --> Erythropoiesis is a sequence involving proliferation & differentiation of committed red marrow cells thru the erythroblast & normoblast stages to the reticulocytes that are released into the bloodstream, & finally become erythrocytes.
Genesis of red blood cells
1. Stimulus: Hypoxia (low blood O2 carrying ability due to: decreased RBC count, decreased amount of hemoglobin, decreased availability of O2)
2. Kidney (and liver to a smaller extent) releases erythropoietin.
3. Erythropoietin stimulates red bone marrow.
4. Enhanced erythropoiesis increases RBC count.
5. O2 carrying ability of blood increases.
Erythropoietin mechanism for regulating erythropoiesis
- 100 to 120 day life span
- Bilirubin formed
- Excreted by liver as bile
- Iron is stored for reuse
Fate & Destruction of Erythrocytes
A yellow pigment that is released to the blood and binds to albumin for transport.
- Excess Bilirubin in the blood
- Yellow bile accumulates in skin
- Deficiency of RBC's
- Hemorrhagic, hemolytic, aplastic anemia
- Iron-deficiency anemia
- Pernicious Anemia
- Sickle-cell Anemia
Erythrocyte Disorders: Anemias
Erythrocyte Disorders --> Anemias --> lack of B12
Erythrocyte Disorders --> Anemias --> erythrocytes are thin, delicate & deficient in hemoglobin, seen in Greeks and Italians, it can show up in siblings, and someone suffering from this would not be able to have iron.
Erythrocyte Disorders --> Anemias --> abnormal hemoglobin, so it becomes spiky and sharp causing crescent shaped cells. Carry lower O2 than normal; stiff, deformed erythrocytes rupture & dam up in small blood vessels interfering w/O2 delivery leaving victims gasping for air & in extreme pain. Bone & chest pain are severe; infection & stroke are common sequels. Blood transfusion is standard treatment but use of inhaled nitric oxide will dilate blood vessels & alleviate pain. Common in people of African descent; striking 1 in 400 black newborns in the US. Caused by a faulty gene from people living in the malaria belt of Africa.
- White Blood Cells
- Nuclei & Organells
- Diapedesis: WBCs slip out of the capillary blood vessels & he circulatory system is simply their means of transport to areas of the body where they are needed to mount inflammatory or immune responses.
- Amoeboid motion
- Positive chemotaxis - chemical trail
__________ are phagocytes to a greater or lesser degree. Defend against meningitis & appendicitis.
Three examples of these are:
Granulocytes, Neutrophils, Basophils, Monocytes
Granulocytes --> These make up 1/2 of WBCs, phagocytize bacteria
Granulocytes --> These attack parasitic worms & help with allergic reactions.
Granulocytes --> These release histamine in inflammatory reactions & heparin (anticoagulant).
The ______ include WBCs that lack visible cytoplasmic granules.
Agranulocytes --> These mount immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies
Agranulocytes --> These go thru phagocytosis; develop into macrophages in the tissues.
- An increase in the number of WBCs; usually the result of a microbiological attack on the body.
- WBCs over 11,000 cells/cubic mm
- Normal: 4,000-11,000 cells/cubic mm
-Leukopenia: low WBC count
- Leukemias: cancer of WBCs
- Infectious Mononucleosis: Epstein-Barr Virus; Highly contagious virus; young adults, tired, achy, chronic sore throat & low-grade fever
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