16 - Blood (PP Notes)

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16 - Blood (PP Notes)
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16 - Blood (PP Notes)
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  1. - The River of Life
    - fluid tissue
    - disease diagnosis
    Blood
  2. Blood Circulation
    Blood exits the heart via arteries, which branch repeatedly until they become tiny capillaries. Oxygen & nutrients leave the blood & enter the body tissues, & CO2 and wastes move from the tissues to the bloodstream. As oxygen-deficient blood leaves the capillary beds, it flows into veins, which return it to the heart. It is then re-oxygenated and recirculated.
  3. Blood exits the ____ via ______, which branch repeatedly until they become tiny _________. The blood returns to the heart via ______ and then to the _______.
    heart, arteries, capillaries, veins, lungs
  4. Blood has both _______ & ______ components.
    cellular, liquid
  5. Cellular components are also called ________.
    Living Blood Cells
  6. Liquid components are also called _____.
    Plasma
  7. Plasma without plasma proteins is called ______.
    serum
  8. This makes up 55% of whole blood and is the least dense component.
    plasma
  9. What are the 2 formed elements that, along with plasma, make-up blood?
    • 1. Buffy coat
    • 2. Erythrocytes
  10. This makes up less than 1% of whole blood and consists of leukocytes & platelets.
    Buffy Coat
  11. This makes up 45% of whole blood and is the most dense component.
    Erythrocytes
  12. Erythrocytes normally constitute about 45% of the total volume of a blood sample, a percentage known as the ________.
    hematocrit
  13. Physical Characteristics of Blood include:
    • - Sticky, opaque fluid
    • - Metallic taste
    • - Salty
    • - Scarlet (oxygen rich) to dark red (oxygen poor)
    • - Heavier than water
    • - 5 x thicker than water
    • - Slightly alkaline, with a pH between 7.35 and 7.45
    • - Temperature 38C or 100.4F (always slightly higher than the body)
    • - 8% of body weight
    • - 5-6 L in males, 4-5 L in females
  14. Functions of the Blood:
    - Distribution: delivers oxygen from lungs & nutrients from digestigve tract to all body cells. Transports wastes from cells to elimination sites (CO2 to lungs, nitrogenous wastes to kidneys). Transports endocrine hormones to target organs.

    - Regulation: Maintains body temp by absorbing & distributing heat thru body & to skin surface to encourage heat loss. Maintains normal pH in body tissues, carries body's alkaline reserve (bicarbonate atoms). Maintains fluid volume in circulatory system by regulation of salts & blood proteins (albumin).

    - Protection: prevents blood loss by beginning b lood clot formation w/platelets & plasma proteins. Prevents infection. Blood carries antibodies, complement proteins, WBC's which fight off foreign invaders or pathogens such as bacteria & viruses.
  15. - Straw colored, sticky fluid, about 90% water
    - 10% solutes - nutrients, respiratory gases, salts, hormones, proteins
    - 52% - 62% of whole blood
    - Plasma proteins
    - Made by the liver
    - Albumin, globulins, clotting proteins
    Blood Plasma
  16. 60% of plasma proteins; produced by liver, main contributor to osmotic pressure
    Albumin
  17. List the 3 formed elements of blood:
    • 1. Erythrocytes
    • 2. Leukocytes
    • 3. Platelets
  18. T/F --> Erythrocytes have no nuclei or organelles & platelets are cell fragments.
    TRUE
  19. T/F --> Only leukocytes are complete cells.
    TRUE
  20. - 4.3-5.2 million RBCs/mm in women
    - 5.1-5.8 million RBCs/mm in men
    - no nuclei
    - no organelles
    - biconcave shape that is maintained by a network of proteins, especially spectrin, attached to the cytoplasmic face of its plasma membrane; spectrin gives them flexibility to change shape as necessary
    - Picks up oxygen in the capillary beds of the lungs & releases it to tissue cells across other capillaries thru out the body.
    - "Bags" of hemoglobin, over 97% hemoglobin
    - Generate ATP by anaerobic mechanisms
    - They are the major contributing factor to blood viscosity
    Structural Characteristics of Erythrocytes
  21. - Transport respiratory gases (O2 & CO2)
    - O2 loading occurs in the lungs, and the direction of transport is from lungs to tissue cells. As oxygen-deficient blood moves thru the lungs, O2 diffuses from the air sacs of the lungs into the blood & then into erythrocytes
    Erythrocyte Function
  22. Erythrocytes --> The protein that makes red blood cells red, binds easily & reversibly with oxygen, and most oxygen carried in blood is bound to _________.
    hemoglobin
  23. - Binds w/oxygen
    - Iron
    - 14-20 g/100ml in Infants (because they must develop quickly over a short period of time)
    - 13-18 g/100ml in Adult Males
    - 12-16 g/100ml in Adult Females
    Hemoglobin
  24. Erythrocytes --> Hemoglobin is made up of the protein ______ bound to the red ____ pigment.
    globin, heme
  25. Erythrocytes --> Hemoglobin --> Globin consists of _ polypeptide chains - _ alpha & _ beta - each binding a ring like heme group
    4, 2, 2
  26. Erythrocytes --> Hemoglobin --> Each polypeptide chain is complexed with a heme group, shown as a circular green structure with ___ at its center.
    iron (I)
  27. Erythrocytes --> Blood cell formation is referred to as _______. This process occurs in the ______, which is composed largely of a soft network of reticular connective tissue bordering on wide blood capillaries.
    hematopoiesis, red bone marrow
  28. Stem cells, also known as _____, are found in red bone marrow & lymphatic tissue, & are the precursor cells for ALL the types of blood cells.
    hemocytoblast
  29. ________ (new cell) & ______ (young erythrocyte) are immature red blood cells, & are usually found in the red bone marrow.
    Normoblasts, reticulocytes
  30. Red bone marrow produces ALL _ kinds of white blood cells.
    5
  31. List the 5 white blood cells:
    • 1. Neutrophil
    • 2. Eosinophil
    • 3. Basophil
    • 4. Lymphocyte
    • 5. Monocyte
  32. ________ & ________ are also produced in lymphatic tissue.
    Lymphocytes, monocytes
  33. ________ are fragments of megakaryocytes.
    Platelets
  34. Erythropoietin - from the kidneys; hypoxic kidney cells
    Erythrocyte Production
  35. The genisis of red blood cells is __________.
    erythropoiesis
  36. Erythrocytes --> Erythropoiesis is a sequence involving proliferation & differentiation of committed red marrow cells thru the erythroblast & normoblast stages to the reticulocytes that are released into the bloodstream, & finally become erythrocytes.
    Genesis of red blood cells
  37. 1. Stimulus: Hypoxia (low blood O2 carrying ability due to: decreased RBC count, decreased amount of hemoglobin, decreased availability of O2)
    2. Kidney (and liver to a smaller extent) releases erythropoietin.
    3. Erythropoietin stimulates red bone marrow.
    4. Enhanced erythropoiesis increases RBC count.
    5. O2 carrying ability of blood increases.
    Erythropoietin mechanism for regulating erythropoiesis
  38. - 100 to 120 day life span
    - Bilirubin formed
    - Excreted by liver as bile
    - Iron is stored for reuse
    Fate & Destruction of Erythrocytes
  39. A yellow pigment that is released to the blood and binds to albumin for transport.
    Bilirubin
  40. - Excess Bilirubin in the blood
    - Yellow bile accumulates in skin
    Jaundice
  41. - Deficiency of RBC's
    - Hemorrhagic, hemolytic, aplastic anemia
    - Iron-deficiency anemia
    Anemia
  42. - Pernicious Anemia
    - Thalassemias
    - Sickle-cell Anemia
    Erythrocyte Disorders: Anemias
  43. Erythrocyte Disorders --> Anemias --> lack of B12
    Pernicious
  44. Erythrocyte Disorders --> Anemias --> erythrocytes are thin, delicate & deficient in hemoglobin, seen in Greeks and Italians, it can show up in siblings, and someone suffering from this would not be able to have iron.
    Thalassemias
  45. Erythrocyte Disorders --> Anemias --> abnormal hemoglobin, so it becomes spiky and sharp causing crescent shaped cells. Carry lower O2 than normal; stiff, deformed erythrocytes rupture & dam up in small blood vessels interfering w/O2 delivery leaving victims gasping for air & in extreme pain. Bone & chest pain are severe; infection & stroke are common sequels. Blood transfusion is standard treatment but use of inhaled nitric oxide will dilate blood vessels & alleviate pain. Common in people of African descent; striking 1 in 400 black newborns in the US. Caused by a faulty gene from people living in the malaria belt of Africa.
    Sickle-cell Anemia
  46. - White Blood Cells
    - Nuclei & Organells
    - Diapedesis: WBCs slip out of the capillary blood vessels & he circulatory system is simply their means of transport to areas of the body where they are needed to mount inflammatory or immune responses.
    - Amoeboid motion
    - Positive chemotaxis - chemical trail
    - Granulocytes
    - Agranulocytes
    Leukocytes
  47. __________ are phagocytes to a greater or lesser degree. Defend against meningitis & appendicitis.

    Three examples of these are:
    Granulocytes, Neutrophils, Basophils, Monocytes
  48. Granulocytes --> These make up 1/2 of WBCs, phagocytize bacteria
    Neutrophils
  49. Granulocytes --> These attack parasitic worms & help with allergic reactions.
    Eosinophils
  50. Granulocytes --> These release histamine in inflammatory reactions & heparin (anticoagulant).
    Basophils
  51. The ______ include WBCs that lack visible cytoplasmic granules.
    Agranulocytes
  52. Agranulocytes --> These mount immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies
    Lymphocytes
  53. Agranulocytes --> These go thru phagocytosis; develop into macrophages in the tissues.
    Monocytes
  54. - An increase in the number of WBCs; usually the result of a microbiological attack on the body.
    - WBCs over 11,000 cells/cubic mm
    - Normal: 4,000-11,000 cells/cubic mm
    Leukocytosis
  55. -Leukopenia: low WBC count
    - Leukemias: cancer of WBCs
    - Infectious Mononucleosis: Epstein-Barr Virus; Highly contagious virus; young adults, tired, achy, chronic sore throat & low-grade fever
    Leukocyte Disorders

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