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3 Types of Sex Abnormalities
With A the individual is characterized by B. The ducts are modified toward C. D are more common than E.
- A. Pseudohermaphrodite
- B. its type of Gonad
- C. the other gender
- D. Male pseudohermaphrodites
- E. Female pseudohermaphrodites
In A, both types of gonadal tissue are present. Their chromosomal make up is B.
- A. Hermaphrodites
- B. Chimera
A A has one side with ovotestis. A Bilateral hermaphrodite has B. A Lateral hermaphrodite is described by having C.
- A. Unilateral hermaphrodite
- B. both sides have Ovotestes
- C. 1 side with Testis, 1 side with Ovary
Abnormalities of Gonadal Sex include A, defined by having 2 or more types of cells, each with a different chromosomal constitution, and each arising from a different source. The product is B.
- A. XX/XY Chimera
- B. Hermaphrodite
An example of Chromosomal sex abnormality is A.
A. Bovine Freemartin
A Bovine Freemartin is a chimera, and the A in a set of B.
- A. Female
- B. Male and Female Twins
In a Freemartin, A allow the male hematopoietic cells to colonize the female
A. Placental Vascular Anastomoses
In a freemartin, the gonads are A. The B are normal or cord-like structure never communicating with the vagina. MIS is produced by C. Seminal vesicles, and other Wolffian structures are present. Externally the animal appears D, but E and F are hypoplastic; the G is enlarged.
- A. Small gonads with no germ cells or partially converted to testis or comprised of
- seminiferous-like tubules.
B. Müllerian ducts
C. the male twin’s testes
- E. Vestibule
- F. Vulva
- G. Clitoris
The male twin is minimally affected.
Complete absence of the ovary and its associated primordium.
Incomplete development or underdevelopment of the ovary with decreased number of cells
Cysts can be from either embryonic duct system. They can be A to the ovary or B.
inclusion cysts and cystic rete ovarii are examples of A.
A. Non-gonadal stromal cysts
A are from the CL or follicles. Examples include B, where there is insufficient LH, and prolonged interval between parturition and first post partum
estrus in cows; C, which is perhaps from delayed or insufficient LH. A Cystic corpus luteum has no interference with length of D. E also occur, but mainly in primates and small animals
- A. Gonadal Stromal Cysts
- B. Cystic Graafian follicle
- C. Anovulatory luteinized cyst
- D. estrus cycle
- E. Neoplastic Cysts
Inflammation of the Ovary; rare and can be from Viral (A) or bacterial etiologies.
A. Herpes Viruses
A A is a type of germ cell tumor; a rare finding, it usually is well differentiated, benign, and exhibits at least two of the 3 embryonic germ layers. It is generally comprised of B.
- A. Teratoma
- B. non-proliferating somatic tissues
A is also rare, and is analogous to seminoma. It is characterized by pale brown appearance of the parenchyma, along with some central collagenous scar.
The gross and microscopic appearance is essentially the same as
a B of the testis in a male.
- A. Dysgerminoma
- B. Seminoma
A is a type of gonadal stromal tumor. It is the one of the most common neoplasms in B.
Rarely malignant in large animals.
Multicystic, unilocular cyst or solid
Anestrus due to failure to cycle
Produces hormones that alter behavior
C causes regression of the contralateral ovary (atrophy)
- A. Granulosa cell tumor
- B. Mares
- C. inhibin
Inflammation of the Uterine Tube
Distention of the uterine tube by clear fluid
Gathering of Pus within the uterine tube lumen
Developmental types of uterine dysplasia include A, characterized by failure of Müllerian ducts linking with the urogenital sinus.
Prostaglandin produced in the blind uterine horn can cause corpus luteum lysis
in the contralateral ovary during pregnancy.
Another Example is B. The normal sequence of fusion of the paired ducts is from posterior to anterior
- A. Segmental aplasia
- B. Imperfect fusion
A is a non inflammatory uterine abnormality. It has Hormonal influence, producing B in farm animals, and C in dogs and cats.
D --> cystic endometrial hyperplasia --> E --> pyometra
Histologically- appreciable increase in size and number of the F with no increase of stroma, followed by endometrial hyperplasia, which is grossly evident. infection may follow with cystic hyperplastic endometritis and pyometra
- A. Endometrial hyperplasia
- B. Estrogen
- C. progesterone
- D. simple endometrial hyperplasia
- E. cystic hyperplastic endometritis
- F. endometrial glands
Uterine position abnormalities include A, leading to hypoxia, infarction, and shock.
Predisposing factors are pyometra, mucometra, pregnancy.
With Uterine Subinvolution there is A.
Sites are thicker than normal, rough, brown, comprised of hematoma and cell
Deeper there is collagen deposition and dilated glands
beneath this there is B.
B can invade the myometrium (placenta percreta) with perforation.
- A. Delayed and abnormal involution of the zonal placental sites.
- B. Trophoblast
A is related to introduction of semen, pregnancy, parturition and post partum
Most infections start in the B.
Progesterone makes the uterus susceptible to infection.
C increase leukocytic phagocytosis and induce cervix opening: drainage, exposure.
Prostaglandins favor uterine motility.
Chronic endometritis --> decreased capability to produce prostaglandin --> corpus luteum and progesterone production persists
The etiologic agents inducing endometritis can also cause abortion (e.g. Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Brucella spp., Escherichia coli in cattle, Streptococcus
equi and zooepidemicus in horses).
- A. ENDOMETRITIS
- B. endometrium
- C. Estrogens
Inflammation of the whole uterine wall.
Acute to chronic suppurative inflammation of the uterus with pus accumulation within the uterine lumen.
In the bitch and in the queen it is often post-uterine infection secondary to endometrial hyperplasia (dog: association with bone marrow atrophy and immunocomplex glomerulonephritis)
Benign intramural and submucosal smooth muscle neoplasm (dog, old potbelly pigs).
Malignant glandular epithelial neoplasm (rabbit, cattle). Very common in rabbits.
Twin placenta is a non-infectious lesion; in the mare and the cow can be regarded as pathological.
The B not in contact with the C does not develop villi.
Proposed sequence of infectious abortion mechanisms
Descending (hematogenic) or ascending infection of the chorionic trophoblast --> Cell necrosis induced by director indirect (e.g. bacterial toxins) cytopathic effect --> Cellular release of inflammatory mediators (including prostaglandins) --> Edema and inflammation --> Hypoxia triggered by: thickening and effacement of trophoblast or endothelial necrosis and thrombosis --> Fetal hypoxia and stress --> Fetal corticosteroid release with combined prostaglandin release --> Uterine contraction and fetal expulsion --> If the microorganisms are able to infect the fetus, fetal septicemia (or viremia, or parasitemia) occurs --> Fetal death in utero --> Expulsion of the fetus with no sequelae --> Expulsion of the fetus withendometritis of the dam --> Possible fetal retention withmummification or maceration of the fetus and with possible severe endometritisof the dam --> Sometimes fetus and placenta are not directly involved and the damage triggering the abortion is limited to the uterus (e.g. equine arteritis virus and EHV can induce vasculitis and necrosisof the endometrium and myometrium followed by sudden severe fetal hypoxia); in these cases the fetus can be still vital at the time of the expulsion.
Selection of infectious agents inducing abortion and stillbirth in domestic animals
Equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 (EHV-1, EHV-4)
- - Multifocal necrosis of lung, liver, lymphoid organs with intranuclear viral
- inclusion bodies.
- Consistent losses for the equine industry.
- EHV-1 also causes respiratory disease, fatal vasculitis and myelopathy secondary to vasculitis in yearlings and adults.
- EHV-1 can also ffect South American camelids.
Selection of infectious agents inducing abortion and stillbirth in domestic animals
Equine viral arteritis (EVA)
- The fetus very rarely has lesions (identification of the seroconversion examining the dam’s serum is necessary to obtain a diagnosis).
Cryptorchidism- Incomplete descent of the ____.
- Unilateral or bilateral.
- The most common disorder of sexual development in the dog (13%).
- Proposed genetic basis: sex limited autosomal recessive.
- Perhaps one gene controls internal testicular descent and organization of the epididymis and deferent duct, and another controls external descent.
- Pathogenetic mechanisms related to the gubernaculum testis are failure to develop, improper position, excessive growth, failure to regress.
- Predisposing factors: testicular hypoplasia, estrogen exposure in pregnancy, breech labor compromising blood supply to the testes, delayed closing of the umbilicus causing delayed ability to increase abdominal pressure.
more often unilateral than bilateral.
- Epididymal differentiation is coordinated with testicular descent and, consequently, it is retarded in some cases of cryptorchidism.
- After puberty the retained testis becomes small and fibrotic.
- Histologically it is hypoplastic and degenerate.
- Cryptorchid testes are much more likely to develop tumors.
Seminoma - Germ Cell Tumor
- From primitive seminiferous epithelium.
- It does NOT produce significant levels of hormones.
- Multifocal within the testis and local invasiveness without metastasis.
- White to pink-gray.
- Soft and bulging when cut, with fine fibrous trabeculae.
- Intratubular or sheet arrangement of large polyhedral cells.
- Adjacent nodules comprised of T lymphocytes.
- Neoplastic germ cell giant cells with single or multiple nuclei.
- Seminoma is the second most common canine testicular tumor.
- They can be benign or malignant. Malignant may metastasize.
Gonadal stromal tumors
Sertoli Cell Tumors
Leydig Cell Tumors
Sertoli Cell Tumors
-Benign or malignant. Malignant are locally invasive and may metastasize.
- Firm, white, with fibrous tissue dividing it in lobules.
- Spindled cells organized in tubules and/or sheets.
- Cells palisade along fibrous tissue.
- One third of Sertoli cell tumors produce estrogen (feminizing effect).
- -Estrogens*: bone marrow toxicity (non regenerative anemia, granulocytopenia and
- thrombocytopenia), hypothyroidism, alopecia, hyperplasia or squamous metaplasia
- of prostate acini, adenomyosis of the epididymis.
- Sertoli cell tumor is the third most common testicular tumor of the dog, but is more frequently diagnosed because of the clinical signs. It is rare in other species.
(*) Estrogen related bone marrow toxicity:
- Carnivores are more susceptible than rodents.
- Growth rate is decreased in rats and mice, but weight gains have been reported in other species; the weights of the liver, spleen, thymus and other organs are changed.
- Liver damage can occur and clotting changes seen in the rat are secondary to liver damage.
- Susceptibility declines in the order cat, ferret, rat and mouse, dog.
- Moderate doses elicit anemia in rats, but lethal bone marrow depression in dogs and ferrets, where death is associated with hemorrhage.
- Interspecies variations at the hypothalamic-pituitary axis appear to have an important bearing on the differential activities of estrogens and antiestrogens across the species.
- - In chickens, estrogens stimulate outgrowth of bone marrow-derived erythroid progenitor cells and delay their maturation; this delay is associated with down-regulation of many
- erythroid cell-specific genes, including alpha- and beta-globin, band 3, band
- 4.1, and the erythroid cell-specific histone H5.
- The transcriptional activity of GATA-1 (GATA1 is a transcription factor contained in vertebrate erythroid cells essential for erythroid and megakaryocyte development) is strongly repressed by the estrogen receptor (ER) in a ligand-dependent manner.
- Perhaps estrogens exert effects on erythropoiesis by modulating GATA-1 activity through protein-protein interaction with the ER.
Leydig (Interstitial) Cell Tumors
- Tan and orange.
- Non invasive, finely encapsulated.
- Most likely non hormonally active.
- Round to polyhedral to spindle shaped cells with finely vacuolated cytoplasm.
- The most common testicular tumor of the dog.