Research Midterm Flashcards.txt

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Research Midterm Flashcards.txt
2010-10-11 03:29:33
Research methods

Research Midterm
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  1. What is a prospective research design?
    An examination of events yet to occur. Determines the correlation between a condition or a characteristic shared by one member of a group noting the variable(s) and the changes that do/do not occur.
  2. What is a retropsective research design?
    A review of records from the past, possibly through interview regarding past events. The study is based on making correlations between an event or phenomenon and one that happened in the past.
  3. What does IRB stand for?
    Institutional Review Board
  4. What is Medline?
    The US database for bibliographic info and sites.
  5. What are the major components of a research article?
    Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, References, Notes and Acknowledgements
  6. What should we address in the introduction section?
    Rationale, intention, theory. Describe the importance of the study, defend the model, provide a rationale and specific hypothesis or objectives.
  7. Why do we need a methods section?
    To document and describe the materials and procedures so the study can be copied or judged for merit. It needs to be very specific so that someone else could replicate the study, or just so that the validity/reliability can be justified. Participants, Materials, and Procedure (including design and validity/reliability).
  8. What do we put in the results section that we don't put in the discussion?
    The resuls section is comprised of data. It is objective. Tables and figures are important to show the reader differences, changes, etc.
  9. What is the discussion and conclusion section?
    The discussion section is the interpretation of the data presented in the results section; tells if hypothesis was correct and notes limitations. The conclusion gives the summary for implications for the field (not required).
  10. What is the editorial process in Publication?
    • 1. A manuscript is received.
    • 2. An associate editor is assigned.
    • 3. Associate editor sends the manuscript to two editorial consultants.
    • 4. A decision is made:
    • a. Accept publication
    • b. Accept w/ contingency that author will make changes.
    • c. Decision is deferred pending major revisions and another review.
    • d. Reject publication
  11. Critical reviews are based on which two types of research?
    Basic and Applied Research
  12. What are the three types of information sources? Give an example of each.
    Primary (first appearance; interview, case study), Secondary (interpret info; article on case study), Tertiary (rudimentary overview; textbook/dictionary)
  13. What is research?
    "To search again;" result in confirmation or evidence against known facts and principles; an attempt to answer formerly unanswered questions; search for and discovery of formerly misunderstood or un-conceived principles and facts; a means of discovering a larger general principle
  14. What are the four methods that make up epistemology?
    Method of Tenacity, Authority, Intuition, and Science
  15. What must scientific research be?
    systematic, controlled, empirical, amoral, and public.
  16. Scientific research depends on which two concepts?
    Empiricism (evidence and experience) and Rationalism (logical thought and deductive reasoning)
  17. What is basic research?
    Development of knowledge
  18. What is Applied research?
    Solves a problem of immediate consequence.
  19. What is descriptive research?
    Examines group differences, developmental trends, or relationships among factors thru the use of objective measures
  20. What is experimental research?
    Examines causation thru observation of the consequent effects of manipulating certain events or characteristics under controlled conditions
  21. What is the Intuition model?
    Scientific theory that facilitates the modeling of phenomena or various processes.
  22. What are the five essential factors of a theory?
    • 1. Accountabilty: ability of a theory to account for most of the existing data w/in its domain.
    • 2. Explanatory relevance: explanation for a phenomena provided by a theory must offer good grounds for believing that the phenomenon would occur under specified conditions
    • 3. Testability: relating to a theory's possibility of failing some empirical test
    • 4. Predictability: ability to predict novel events or new phenomena beyond those for which the theory was originally designed
    • 5. Parsimonious: it should adopt the fewest or simplest set of assumptions in the interpretation of data
  23. What are the three types of Research?
    Qualitative, Quantitatie, and Mixed
  24. What are the three types of Quantitative Research?
    Experimental, Descriptive, Combined
  25. What are the four types of Qualitative Research?
    Observational, Interview, Narrative, and Case Study
  26. What are the three types of Experimental Research?
    Bivalent, Multivalent, and Parametric
  27. What is a Bivalent experiment?
    Effects of two values of one independent variable on the dependent variable; valuable for categorical independent variables.
  28. What is a Multivalent experiment?
    Effects of several values of independent variable on the dependent variable; valuable for continuous indepedent variables.
  29. What is a Parametric experiment?
    Simultaneous effects of more than one independent variable on the dependent variable; second independent variable is parameter.
  30. What are the four types of Descriptive Research?
    Developmental, Correlational, Survey, Retrospective
  31. What is an independent variable?
    A variable whose values are independent of changes in the values of other variables.
  32. What is a dependent variable?
    The observed variable in an experiment or study whose changes are determined by the presence or degree of one or more independent variables.
  33. What are the variables in Empirical Research?
    Independent, Dependent, Extraneous, Control, Active, Attribute, Continuous, and Categorical
  34. What are the four characteristics for conducting research?
    • 1. Purpose, question, hypothesis
    • 2. Control events and observe behaviors
    • 3. Repeatable
    • 4. Able to manipulate conditions
  35. What is Combined research?
    It's experimental b/c we are examining the cause and effect relations but also descriptive b/c we can't manipulate the attributes of subjects
  36. What are the three types of Interview research?
    Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured
  37. What are the four argument types?
    Argument by Example, Analogy, Induction, and Deduction
  38. Why are literature citations used?
    To document the need of the study and put the research into context or historical perspective
  39. What types of adverbs help identify prepositions?
    Preforatory adverbs (Therefore, thus, consequently)
  40. What are errors in arguments called?
  41. What are the three types of fallacies?
    Fallacy of reason, distraction, induction
  42. What are the components of an introduction?
    General Statement of the problem, Rationale, Lit Review, Research Questions, Hypothesis, and Limitations of the Study
  43. What are the types of Research Questions?
    Descriptive, Difference, and Relationship Questions
  44. What are the types of Hypotheses?
    Working, Research, and Null Hypothesis
  45. What are the two types of Limitations?
    Extrinsic and Intrinsic
  46. The two major classes of research design?
    Group and Single-subject
  47. The two criteria used to evaluate research design?
    Internal and external validity
  48. What is a qualitative research design?
    Generates hypotheses; hypotheses emerge from observation and interpretation of behavior
  49. What are the qualitative design characteristics?
    Design flexibility, purposeful sampling, and naturalistic inquiry
  50. What is the difference between internal and external validity?
    Internal validity is the ability to show that the researcher was able to control all variables; External validity is the ability to generalize to similar settings
  51. What are some threats to internal validity?
  52. What are some threats to external validity?
  53. What is pilot research?
    A way to perform a trial run to rapidly discover major surprises or flaws in the experiment's concept