What is the Translation Procedure?
1 - Look at your case ending
2 - Look at the article
3 - Find the subject (nominative)
4 - Find the Direct Object (accusative)
5 - If there is an article (the), keep it with the noun.
6 - If the article is present, translate it. If there is no article, do not use "the"
7 - If there is no article put "a" if it makes sense (it could be "man" or "a man")
8 - Greek often uses a definite article before a proper name (you may omit the article in your translation of proper names.)
9 - Greek often includes the article with abstract nouns such as "the Truth," although English does not normally use the article.
10 - a postpositive is a word that cannot be the first word in a sentence or clause, even though in your translation it is the first word.
i.e. de is "but" in the Greek "o de eipen" is translated "but he said."