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What is rule 1 in Syllabification?
There is one vowel (or dipthong) per syllable.
a ke ko a men mar tu rou men
What is rule 2 in Syllabification?
A single consonant by itself (not a cluster) goes with the following vowel.
e w ra ka men e the a sa me tha
What is rule 3 in Syllabification?
Two Consecutive vowels that do not form a dipthong are divided.
e the a sa me tha E sa i as
What is rule 4 in syllabification.
A consonant cluster that can not be pronounced together is divided, and the first consonant goes with the preceding vowel.
em pro sthen ar kes
What is rule 5 in syllabification?
A consonant cluster that can be pronounced together goes with the following vowel.
Cri stos gra fe
This includes a consonant formed with Mu or Nu
e Thne sin Pneu ma
What is rule 6 in Syllabification?
Double consonants are divivded
a pag gel lo men par re si a
What is rule 7 in Syllabification?
Compund words are divided where joined.
anti cristos ek ballo
What are the four Major Cases in Greek?
1 - Nominative
2 - Genetive
3 - Dative
4 - Accusitive
What is the function of the Nominative Case
What is the function of the Genetive Case
key word is "of"
What is the function of the Dative case?
Key words are:
"to" "in" "with"
What is the function of the Accusitive case?
What are the key words for the Genitive?
What are the key words for the dative?
"to" "in" "with"
What is Noun Rule #1?
Stems ending in alpha or eta are in the first declension
stems ending in omicron are in the are in the second declension
and consonantal stems are in the third declension.
What is Noun Rule #2?
Every neuter word has the same form in the nominative and accusative.
What is Noun Rule #3?
Almost all neuter words end in alpha in the nominative and accusative plural.
What is Noun Rule #4?
In the dative singular, the iota subscripts if possible
What is Noun Rule #5?
Vowels often change their length ("ablaut").
- "Contraction" occurs whe two vowels meet and form a different vowel or dipthong.
logo + i -- logw (dat. sing)
logo + o -- logou (gen. sing)
grafe + wn -- grafwn (gen. plu.)
- "Compensatory lengthening" occurs when a vowel is lengthned to compensate for the loss of another letter.
logo + ns -- logos -- logous (Acc. plu.)
What is Noun Rule #6?
In the genitive and genitive, the masculine and neuter will always be identical.
What is the Translation Procedure?
1 - Look at your case ending
2 - Look at the article
3 - Find the subject (nominative)
4 - Find the Direct Object (accusative)
5 - If there is an article (the), keep it with the noun.
6 - If the article is present, translate it. If there is no article, do not use "the"
7 - If there is no article put "a" if it makes sense (it could be "man" or "a man")
8 - Greek often uses a definite article before a proper name (you may omit the article in your translation of proper names.)
9 - Greek often includes the article with abstract nouns such as "the Truth," although English does not normally use the article.
10 - a postpositive is a word that cannot be the first word in a sentence or clause, even though in your translation it is the first word.
i.e. de is "but" in the Greek "o de eipen" is translated "but he said."
Know the Paradigm for the Greek Article
pg. 48 in Mounce
Know the Full Paradigm for first and second declension nouns
What are the rules for the alternate first declension pattern.
1 - The alpha to eta shift
All feminine plural stems end in alpha, regardless of their form in the singular
In the rules for Alternate first declension pattern there is the rule of
alpha to eta shift. What is the rule?
If a first declension word has a stem ending in alpha where the preceding letter is epsilon, iota, or rho, it will form the genitive and dative singular with alpha. Otherwise, the alpha will shift to eta.
What is the Paradigm for Eimi?
What is a preposition?
A preposition is a word that indicates the relationship between two words. In the sentence.
The book is under the table. (under is the preposition)
What does it mean for a preposition to be goverened by a case?
The meaning of a preposition depends upon the case ending of its object.
if object is genitive, Preposition dia means "through"
if object is accusative, Preposition dia means "on account of"
What is the full paradigm of agapathos?
What is the significance of the absence of the article?
If there is no article before either the noun or the adjective, context becomes the guide to translation.
Who do you translate an article if it is in front of a prepositional phrase?
Make sure to understand it better.... page 67 on mounce.
What is the special rule for Neutar plural subjects?
Greek often uses a singular verb when the subject is neuter plural.
- It is an indication that the author is viewing the plural subject not as a collection of different things but as one group. To keep proper english you will use a plural verb.
Test the spirits (and see) if they are