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What is Leininger's Definiteion of Culture?
Culture is the learned, shared, and transmitted values, beliefs, norms, and lifeway practices of a particular group that guide thinking, decisions, and actions in patterned ways
What are some terms related to culture?
Ethnicity, enculturation, acculturation, assimilation, subculter, bicultural, ethnocentrism, cultural awareness, cultural sensitivity, culturual competence, worldview, prejudice, stereotyping, discrimination
What are the characteristics of a culture?
is learned, is taught, is social, is adaptive, is satisfying, is difficult to articulate, and exists at many levels
What are some example components of culture?
Language, art, music, food, nutrition, value system, space/time orientation, religion, family interaction, behavior patters, rituals/ceremonies, recreation, festivals/holidays, symbols
What are some phenomenon significant to nursing?
health beliefs and practices, family patterns, communication styles, space and time orientation, nutritional patterns, pain responses
How to develop a culturally congruent plan of care.
become aware of your own culture as well as idetify personal biases, sterotypes, or ethnocentrism. Become aware of your client's culture via interview and observation. Become aware of your client's adaptations to the location and culture of that location. Incorporate client's cultural values and practices into mutually agreed upon care plan. Offer and explain possible adaptations or changes if beneficial to health. Accept client decisions about adaptations.
Leininger's Transcultural Care decisions and actions.
- Culture care preservation- maintenance & cultural care values retained
- Culture care accommodations - negotiation & adaptations for positive outcomes
- Culture care repatterning - restructuring & change and modify to benefit health
Health beliefs and practices
- Magico-religious health belief view- health and illness are controlled by supernatural forces & no control over outcomes vs. some control.
- Scientific or biomedical- LIfe and life processes are controlled by physical and biochemical processes
- Holistic- forces of nature must be maintained in harmony. Cold and hot balance or yingyang.
What are some family patterns?
- Cultural values determine communication within the family group. - verbal communication & non-verbal (eyecontact)
- ROles of specific family members - caregivers, decision makers, male/female and older/younger.
- Advanced directives and informed consent.
What are some nutritional patterns?
most culturals have staple foods. Great variation depending upon degree of acculturation. Fasting. Food preperation, cooking, storage. Pregnancy and lactation.
What are some pain responses?
View of the meaning of pain and suffering. Respones to pain vary among ethnic groups. - how or if pain is expressed & avoid planning care based on stereotypes.
What are some pregnancy, childbirths, and post partum practices?
- Who is in the room?
- Does the mother express herself during labor and delivery?
- Are there foods that are avoided or encouraged before and after childbirth?
- Are there special practices re bathing and activity?
- Are there special requests for the placenta?
- What are the view re lactation?