CP 1,2

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Author:
cathy4xo
ID:
41319
Filename:
CP 1,2
Updated:
2010-10-11 07:42:54
Tags:
Gynaecological malignancies
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Description:
Ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer
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  1. What are the possible lesions that may result in a mass in the right fornix? Name 3 categories and 2 examples each.
    • Infected organ (abscess) - PID, ovarian abscess, puerperal pelvic cellulitis
    • Neoplasms - ovarian cancer, cervical ncacer, pelvic mets, uterus adenocarcinoma
    • Other - ectopic pregnancy, ovarian cyst, pelvic hematoma
  2. Name 3 things that cause a cystic ovarian mass appearance on U/S.
    • Ovarian cyst
    • Ovarian cancer
    • Leiomyoma (normal on other side)
  3. Name 5 further Ix for such mass.
    • CA 125 (not so useful, only when combined with U/S)
    • CT
    • IVP
    • Laparoscopy + biopsy
    • PET scans
  4. Name 3 causes for fleshy nodules over peritoneum.
    • Ovarian cancer
    • Peritoneal cancer
    • Endometriosis
  5. Name 4 main categories of ovarian cancers.
    • Common epithelial (90%) - serous, endometriod, mucinous, clear cell
    • Germ cell (3%) - occur in young women, very curable, raised beta-HCG & AFP
    • Sex cord (5%)
    • Rare types e.g. Brenners
  6. Name 5 predisposing factors for ovarian cancer.
    • White women & industrialised countries
    • Women w/o kids
    • Early menarche, late menopause
    • Breast cancer
    • Fx & genetic mutation BRCA 1/2
  7. Name 2 chemotherapy agents and their mechanism.
    Carboplatin - binding to DNA and interfering with cell's repair mechanism ---- cell death

    Paclitaxel - interferes with microtubules breakdown (for cellular transport)
  8. Name 4 complications of ovarian cancer.
    • Metastases
    • Loss of organ functions
    • Ascites
    • Intestines blockage
  9. Name 5 causes for post-menopausal PV bleeding.
    • Hormone replacements
    • Endometrial cancer/polyps
    • Cervical cancer/lesions
    • Uterine tumors
    • Estrogen-secreting tumors in other parts
    • of the body
  10. Name 8 risk factors for endometrial cancer (altogether 10).
    • Age: 50-59 (peak)
    • HRT(unopposed oestrogen)
    • Obesity/Diabetes
    • Nulliparity
    • Late menopause/early menarche
    • Tamoxifen
    • COCP
    • Cigarette smoking
    • Breast, colon, ovarian cancers
    • Family history
  11. Name 5 Ix for suspected endometrial cancer.
    • Vaginal ultrasonography
    • Endometrial biopsy
    • Hysteroscopically directed biopsy
    • Dilatation and curettage
    • Examination under anesthesia

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