AP US History Ch 13
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"Corrupt Bargain" of 1824
In the 1824 election (Andrew Jackson vs John Quincy Adams vs William H Crawford vs Henry Clay), when Andrew Jackson won the popular vote but not the majority of the electoral vote. According to the Constitution, the house of Representatives, for which Clay was the speaker, had to choose out of the top three candidates, giving Clay influence over who was chosen. Clay disliked Jackson and Crawford was out because of a paralytic stroke, so Clay made Adams president. In return (and this spawned much protest and scandal), Adams made Clay the Secretary of State. But the decision stood, showing how American political policy was changing.
Nationalistic ideas that John Quincy Adams proposed to Congress in his first annual message. They made him unpopular.
Construction of roads and canals, a national university, and an astronomical observatory. Also, Adams tried to reduce speculation and treat Indians fairly with his land policy.
The two sections into which the Republicans split immediately following Adams' election on February 9, 1825.
National Republicans (favoring Adams) and Democratic-Republicans (favoring Jackson)
Parts of the country that supported Andrew Jackson in the 1828 election.
Parts of the country that supported John Quincy Adams in the 1828 election.
New England and Northeast
Parts of the country that were divided in the 1828 election.
Middle States and Old Northeast
"the inaugural brawl"
When, at Andrew Jackson's inauguration in 1828?, the Whitehouse was opened to everyone, and the multitude wrecked china and furniture (and threatened to wreck peoples' ribs). The people only left the Whitehouse when they learned that spiked punch had been set outside on the lawn.
"Old Hickory" and "King Mob"
Nicknames given to Andrew Jackson during the War of 1812 and his inauguration as president respectively.
The spoils system
The policy of rewarding one's supporters with positions in the federal government. Named for Senator WIlliam Marcy's remark in 1832 that "to the victor belong the spoils of the enemy." Already prominent in New York and Pennsylvania, Jackson made the practice common nationwide.
Was made collector of customs in the port of New York for supporting Andrew Jackson. Nine years later he fled to England leaving the U.S. $1million poorer. First man to steal a million from the Washington government.
Tariff of 1828
High tariff that Jacksonites promoted only because they thought that it wouldn't pass and its failure would look bad for President Adams. When it did pass in 1828, Andrew Jackson inherited a tough tariff problem.
Led the aborted slave rebellion in Charleston in 1822
The South Carolina Exposition
Written by John C. Calhoun (though as he was VP at the time, it was anonymous), this pamphlet denounced the Tariff of 1828 as unjust and unconstitutional, and suggested that the states nullify it within their borders.
Group that tried to obtain the two-thirds vote needed in the South Carolina legislature to nullify the tariff of 1828. They were blocked by the minority, but determined, Unionists. During the 1832 state election, they wore palmetto ribbons on their hats and finished with more than a two-thirds majority, allowing them to try and nullify the tariff of 1832.
Tariff of 1832
Though still protective in nature, this tariff dulled some of the worse characteristics of the tariff of 1828. South still didn't like it.
Robert Y. Hayne
Former senator and governor of South Carolina during the nullification of the Tariff of 1832.
The compromise Tariff of 1833
Provided that teh Tariff of 1832 would gradually reduce by about 10% over a period of 8 years, returning it to the mild protection of 1816. Henry Clay supported it to prevent hostility between the government and South Carolina.
Force Bill (or "Bloody Bill" in the Carolinas)
Authorized the president to use the army and navy, if necessary, to collect federal tariff duties.
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