Obs and Gyn

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Obs and Gyn
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2010-10-11 08:46:51
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  1. Abruptio Placentae
    (Placental Abruption)
    An obstetric catastrophe (complication of pregnancy), wherein the placental lining has separated from the uterus of the mother. It is the most common pathological cause of late pregnancy bleeding.
  2. Amniocentesis
    A medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections, in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is extracted from the amnion or amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus, and the fetal DNA is examined for genetic abnormalities.
  3. Amniotic Fluid
    The nourishing and protecting liquid contained by the amniotic sac of a pregnant woman.
  4. ARM
    • Artificial rupture of membrane (ARM)
    • In which manual intervention of amniotic sac is done to rupture the sac.
  5. Asynclitism
    Refers to the position of a baby in the uterus such that the head is tilted to the side, causing the fetal head to no longer be in line with the birth canal.
  6. Augmentation
    The process by which the first &/or second stages of an already established labour is accelerated or potentiated by deliberate and artificial means.
  7. Ballottement
    • a technique of feeling for a movable object in the body, esp
    • confirmation of pregnancy by feeling the rebound of the fetus following a quick digital tap on the wall of the uterus
  8. Battledore Placenta
    A condition in which the umbilical cord is attached at the margin of the placenta.
  9. Bimanual Palpation
    The examination of a woman's pelvic organs in which the examiner places one hand on the abdomen and one or two fingers of the other hand in the vagina. The size, shape, and consistency of the cervix, uterus, and adnexa are then assessed and noted.
  10. Braxton Hicks Contractions
    Also known as false labor or practice contractions are sporadic uterine contractions that usually start around 6 weeks however are not usually felt until the second trimester or third trimester of pregnancy.
  11. Breech presentation
    The baby enters the birth canal with the buttocks or feet first as opposed to the normal head first presentation.
  12. Brow presentation
    Presentation of the fetal brow in labor
  13. Caput succedaneum
    A neonatal condition involving a serosanguinous, subcutaneous, extraperiosteal fluid collection with poorly defined margins caused by the pressure of the presenting part of the scalp against the dilating cervix (tourniquet effect of the cervix) during delivery.
  14. Cephalhematoma
    A hemorrhage of blood between the skull and the periosteum of a newborn baby secondary to rupture of blood vessels crossing the periosteum.
  15. Cephalic
    presentation
    Presentation of any part of the fetal head in labor, whether the vertex, face, or brow.
  16. Chorionic Villus Sampling
    A form of prenatal diagnosis to determine chromosomal or genetic disorders in the fetus. It entails getting a sample of the chorionic villus (placental tissue) and testing it.
  17. Circumvallate placenta
    one in which a dense peripheral ring is raised from the surface and the attached membranes are doubled back over the placental edge.
  18. Colostrum
    A form of milk produced by the mammary glands of mammals in late pregnancy.
  19. Compound Presentation
    Prolapse of a limb of the fetus alongside the head in a cephalic presentation or of one or both arms in a breech presentation.
  20. Contracted Pelvis
    One showing a decrease of 1.5 to 2 cm in any important diameter; when all dimensions are proportionately diminished it is a generally contracted.
  21. Crowning
    The phase at the end of labor in which the fetal head is seen at the introitus of the vagina. The labia are stretched in a crown around the head just before birth.
  22. Dystocia
    A slow or difficult labor or delivery.
  23. Eclampsia
    An acute and life-threatening complication of pregnancy, is characterized by the appearance of tonic-clonic seizures, usually in a patient who had developed pre-eclampsia.
  24. Effacement
    The thinning out of the cervix that normally occurs along with dilation shortly before delivery.
  25. Engagement
    The entrance of the fetal head or presenting part into the upper opening of the maternal pelvis.
  26. External Cephalic Version
    A procedure that externally rotates the fetus from a breech position to a vertex presentation.
  27. Face presentation
    An obstetric presentation in which the chin of the fetus is the first feature to appear in labor.
  28. Failure to descent
    Failure of descent of the fetal head through the pelvic brim or the interspinous diameter.
  29. Failure to progress
    Cervical changes of < 1 cm/hr for 2 consecutive hrs.
  30. False labour
    Braxton Hicks contractions, also known as false labor or practice contractions are sporadic uterine contractions that usually start around 6 weeks however are not usually felt until the second trimester or third trimester of pregnancy.
  31. Fetal Distress
    Refers to the presence of signs in a pregnant woman—before or during childbirth—that suggest that the fetus may not be well.
  32. Fetal Lie
    The relationship of the long axis of the fetus to the long axis of the mother.
  33. First Stage of Labour
    Dilation
  34. Fourth Stage Labour
    It can refer to the immediate puerperium, or the hours immediately after delivery of the placenta.

    It can be used in a more metaphorical sense to describe the weeks following delivery
  35. Fundal height
    A measure of the size of the uterus used to assess fetal growth and development. It is measured from the top of the mother's uterus to the top of the mother's pubic bone in centimeters.
  36. Fundus
    The top portion, opposite from the cervix.
  37. Gestational Diabetes
    A condition in which women without previously diagnosed diabetes exhibit high blood glucose levels during pregnancy.
  38. Gestational Hypertension
    Or pregnancy-induced hypertension is defined as the development of new arterial hypertension in a pregnant woman after 20 weeks gestation.
  39. Goodell’s sign
    An indication of pregnancy. It is a significant softening of the vaginal portion of the cervix.
  40. Gravida
    A pregnant woman.
  41. Hegar’s sign
    Softening of the lower uterine segment; indicative of pregnancy.
  42. HELLP syndrome
    Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelet count occurring in association with pre-eclampsia.
  43. HCG
    Human chorionic gonadotropin - A hormone excreted during the development of an embryo or fetus.
  44. Hydatidiform mole
    Tissue around a fertilized egg that normally would have developed into the placenta instead develops as an abnormal cluster of cells. This grapelike mass forms inside of the uterus after fertilization instead of a normal embryo. A hydatidiform mole triggers a positive pregnancy test and in some cases can become cancerous.
  45. Hydramnios
    The presence of an excessive amount of amniotic fluid.
  46. Hyperemesis Gravidarum
    Hyperemesis gravidarum means excessive vomiting during pregnancy.
  47. Hysterosalpingography
    A procedure where x rays are taken of a woman's reproductive tract after a dye is injected. Hystero means uterus and salpingo means tubes, so hysterosalpingography literally means to take pictures of the uterus and fallopian tubes.
  48. Incompetent cervix
    A cervix (the structure at the bottom of the uterus) that is incompetent is abnormally weak, and therefore it can gradually widen during pregnancy. Left untreated, this can result in repeated pregnancy losses or premature delivery.
  49. IUGR
    Intrauterine growth retardation
  50. LGA
    Large for gestational age.
  51. Leopold’s Maneuver
    A common and systematic way to determine the position of a fetus inside the woman's uterus.
  52. Lie
    The relationship between the long axis of the fetus and the long axis of the mother.
  53. Lightening
    The sensation of decreased abdominal distention during the latter weeks of pregnancy following the descent of the fetal head into the pelvic inlet.
  54. Linea Nigra
    The linea alba when it has become pigmented in pregnancy.
  55. Low Birth Weight
    Referring to an infant weight from 1500 g to 2500 g at birth.
  56. Mastitis
    An infection of the breast. It usually only occurs in women who are breastfeeding their babies.
  57. Lochia Rubra
    That occurring immediately after childbirth, consisting almost entirely of blood.
  58. Lochia Alba
    The final vaginal discharge after childbirth, when the amount of blood is decreased and the leukocytes are increased.
  59. Lochia Serosa
    The serous vaginal discharge occurring four or five days after childbirth.
  60. McDonald’s measurement
    A.K.A. Fundal height - A measure of the size of the uterus used to assess fetal growth and development. It is measured from the top of the mother's uterus to the top of the mother's pubic bone in centimeters.
  61. Meconium
    A dark green fecal material that accumulates in the fetal intestines and is discharged at or near the time of birth.
  62. Mittelschmerz
    Abdominal pain occurring at the time of ovulation, resulting from irritation of the peritoneum by bleeding from the ovulation site.
  63. Molding
    The natural process by which a baby's head is shaped during labor as it is squeezed into and through the birth passage by the forces of labor. The head often becomes quite elongated, and the bones of the skull may be caused to overlap slightly at the suture lines.
  64. Multipara
    A woman who has had two or more pregnancies resulting in viable fetuses, whether or not the offspring were alive at birth.
  65. Nagele’s rule
    A standard way of calculating the due date for a pregnancy.
  66. Nullipara
    A woman who has never given birth.
  67. Oligohydramnios
    An abnormally small amount or absence of amniotic fluid.
  68. Parturition
    The process of labor and delivery in the birth of a child.
  69. Oxytocin
    A short polypeptide hormone that is released from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, stimulates the contraction of smooth muscle of the uterus during labor, and facilitates release of milk from the breast during nursing.
  70. Perinatal
    Of, relating to, or being the period around childbirth, especially the five months before and one month after birth
  71. Placenta Accretia
    A severe obstetric complication involving an abnormally deep attachment of the placenta, through the endometrium and into the myometrium (the middle layer of the uterine wall). There are three forms of placenta accreta, distinguishable by the depth of penetration.
  72. Placenta previa
    An obstetric complication in which the placenta is attached to the uterine wall close to or covering the cervix. It can sometimes occur in the later part of the first trimester, but usually during the second or third. It is a leading cause of antepartum haemorrhage (vaginal bleeding).
  73. Polyhydramnios
    A medical condition describing an excess of amniotic fluid in the amniotic sac.
  74. Postpartum
    Occurring immediately after birth.
  75. Primigravid
    Or gravida 1 is a woman who is pregnant for the first time or has been pregnant one time.
  76. Prolapse umbilical cord
    An obstetric emergency during pregnancy or labor that imminently endangers the life of the fetus. Cord prolapse is often concurrent with the rupture of the amniotic sac. After this happens the fetus moves downward into the pelvis and puts pressure on the cord. As a result, oxygen and blood supplies to the fetus are diminished or cut-off and the baby must be delivered quickly.
  77. Pudendal block
    Regional anesthesia resulting from the use of a local anesthetic to deaden the pudendal nerves in the region of the vulva and labia majora; used to ease discomfort during childbirth
  78. Puerperal infection
    Also called childbed fever, can develop into puerperal sepsis, which is a serious form of septicaemia contracted by a woman during or shortly after childbirth, miscarriage or abortion. If untreated, it is life-threatening.
  79. Quickening
    Refers to the initial motion of the fetus in the uterus as it is perceived or felt by the pregnant woman.
  80. RhoGam
    Rho(D) Immune Globulin is a medicine given by intermuscular injection which is used to prevent the immunological condition known as Rhesus disease (or hemolytic disease of newborn).
  81. Second Stage Labour
    Expulsion
  82. Shoulder dystocia
    A specific case of dystocia whereby the anterior shoulder of the infant cannot pass below the pubic symphysis, or requires significant manipulation to pass below, the pubic symphysis. It is diagnosed when the shoulders fail to deliver shortly after the fetal head.
  83. Shoulder presentation
    A malpresentation at childbirth where the baby is in a transverse lie (its vertebral column is perpendicular to that of the mother), thus the leading part (the part that enters first the birth canal) is an arm, shoulder, or the trunk. While a baby can be delivered vaginally when either the head or the feet/buttocks are the leading part, it usually cannot be expected to be delivered successfully with a shoulder presentation unless a cesarean section (C/S) is performed.
  84. Sim’s position
    • The position is described as follows:
    • 1. Patient lies on their left side.
    • 2. Patient's left leg is extended behind their back
    • 3. Patient's right leg is brought forward.
  85. SGA
    Small for gestational age
  86. Stripping the membranes
    Breaking the mother's water.
  87. Succenturiate placenta
    A morphological abnormality, in which there is one or multiple accessory lobes connected to the main part of the placenta by blood vessels.
  88. Teratogen
    An agent, such as a virus, a drug, or radiation, that can cause malformations or functional damage to an embryo or a fetus.
  89. Third Stage Labour
    Placenta
  90. Tocolytic drug
    Any drug used to suppress premature labor.
  91. Velamentous placenta
    Normally, the cord inserts into the middle of the placenta. In velamentous cord insertion, the umbilical cord inserts into the membranes, then travels within the membranes to the placenta (between the amnion and chorion). The exposed vessels are not protected by Wharton's jelly and hence are vulnerable to rupture. Rupture is especially likely if the vessels are near the cervix, in which case they may rupture in early labor (causing a stillbirth).
  92. Vernix caseosa
    The substance consisting of desquamated epithelial cells and sebaceous matter that covers the skin of the fetus.

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