Stress and Coping
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Discuss the concept and definition of stress. What emotions are frequently associated with the phenomenon of stress?
- Stress is an uncomfortable, tension-related experience (feeling) that is mediated through cognitive processes.
- -situational or reactive depression
- -chronic anger
What types of symptoms can be caused by stress?
- Stress can cause PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS -headaches-high BP-muscle stiffness-dizziness/light headedness, fatigue-digestive problems.
- MENTAL SYMPTOMS-inability to concentrate-narrowed perception-confusion- forgetfullness
- BEHAVIOR SYMPTOMS-erratic behavior- irritability- crying-fidgety
What is perceived health?
- Illness: somatic discomfort(physical or emotional) and functional ability below perceived capability level
- Wellness: somatic comfort and functional ablility at or near perceived capability level.
What are the causes of stress?
- demands >resources
- -situation viewed as a "threat" (anticipated harm or loss)
What is a demand?
- anything that requires extra effort (feeling, thinking, action) - environmental physical dangers
- -social isolation
- -work and performance requirements
- -other peoples expectations/behavior
- -environmental hassles (noise, smells, weather, crowding/lack of privacy)
- Personal originated demands (motivational structure)(values/goals/expectations)
- Beliefs about environment & coping ability, roles you play, physical health status.
What is a resource?
- anything that help you to meet demands.
- -physical energy/strength
- -knowledge (education and life education)
- -emotional intelligence
- -positive thinking
- -material items
What is Social support?
people who will listen, help you think through, give you constructive feedback, "care about you", help you see the positive or oppurtunities.
How do thoughts and feeling relate?
Thoughts create feelings. Different thoughts or meanings trigger different emotions.
Discuss the work of worry guide and its relationship with stress.
- 1. is what i'm concerned about possible
- 2. Is it preventable?
- 3. Can the negative impact be decreased?
- 4. How can I cope with it should it occur?
Discuss nursing intervention to help persons deal with anxiety and other symptoms related to stress.
- Anxiety Interventions- take action, take charge
- avoid being afraid of anxiety, deep breathing (diaphragmatic)
- Thought Stopping- negative self-talk serves no productive purposes and growth promoting self-talk is energizing.
Discuss justified and unjustified guilt.
Justified: some type of harm was experienced, you caused the harm, harm was foreseeable and preventable, and outcome = learning
Unjustified: expecting yourself to be ideal in situations that are not ideal, holding yourself responsible for a harm you did not cause (most common form)
Discuss the types of anger and how these relate to stress.
Situational: short-lived, expressed-over and done with, often feels good.
Chronic: lasts for weeks/months/yrs, doesn't feel good (damaging)
What are the cirteria for a realistic expectation?
- expectation was clearly communicated
- person must be able to meet the expectation
- -have requiste knowledge & skill
- -have require resources
- person must be willing
Discuss frustration and how it relates to stress.
Frustration causes" impatience and not breaking large/complex goals down into accomplishable steps.
Discuss coping responses.
reappriase your situation(change your thoughts), avoid troublesome interactions, ventilate emotions to change situation, manage demand load-set limites to saying no, planning to avoid overload, control timing of events, modify unrealistic expectations, seek helpful information, and modify the environment
What is positive situationtal Focusing?
difficult situations and stress are the not the same thing. Find somehting positive or humurous to focus on while dealing with difficult situations to prevent and minimize stress emotions.
Problem focused coping versus emotion focused coping.
- -withdrawl from the situation
- -ventilate emotions to decrease intensity
- -diversion activites
- -relaxation exercises
- -physical exercises
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