Nursing exam III

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Nursing exam III
2010-10-31 17:46:52

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  1. substance used to diagnose, treatment, cure, relief, or prevention of health alterations
  2. ensures that all medications on the market undergo vigerous testing before they are sold to the public
  3. passage of medication molecules into the blood from the sire of medication administration
  4. the study of how medications enter the body , reach their site of action, metabolize and exit the body
  5. produces the most rapid absorbtion because medications are immediately available when they enter the systemic circulation
    IV injection
  6. the combined effect of the two medications is greater then the effect of the medications when given seperatly
    synergistic effect
  7. time it takes for excretion processes to lower the serum medication concentration in half
    serum half life
  8. time it takes after a medication is administered for it to produce a response
  9. time it takes for a medication to reach its highest effective concentrations
  10. minimum blood serum concentration of medication reached just before the next scheduled dose
  11. time during which the medication is present in concentration great enough to produce a response
  12. blood serum concentration of a medication reached and maintained after repeated fixed doses
  13. involved injecting a medication into body tissues
    parenteral routes
  14. through a catheter placed in the subarachnoid space or one of the ventricles of the brain
    intrathecal meds
  15. invloves the infusion of medication directly into the bone marrow
  16. administered into the peritoneal cavity are absorbed into the circulation
  17. injection or chest rude is used to administer medications directly into the pleural space
  18. administered directly into the arteries
  19. injection of medication into a joint
  20. given mass of solid substance dissolved in a known volume of fluid or a given volume of liquid dissolved in a known volume of another liquid
  21. the six rights of medication administration are:
    • 1. right medication
    • 2. right dose
    • 3. right client
    • 4. right route
    • 5. right time
    • 6. right documentation
  22. when the client takes two medications to treat the same illness
  23. contributes to body tissue restoration
    NREM sleep
  24. necessary for brain tissue restoration and appears to be important for cognitive restoration
    REM sleep
  25. sudden muscle weakness during intanse emotioins such as anger, sadness or laughter
    occurs at any time of the day
  26. somanbulism
    sleep walking
  27. bruxism
    tooth grinding
  28. the right ventrical pumps blood through the ________ circulation
  29. the left ventricle pumps blood through the _______ circulation
  30. what two valves are involved in S1 and what is the action
    Right side
    • mitral and tricuspid
    • filling
  31. what to valves are involved in S2 and what is the action
    left side
    • aortic and pulmonic
    • ejection
  32. stretching fibers to maximum without going too far to produce effective contraction
    starlings law
  33. results in decreased pumping action and decrease in the volume of blood ejected from the ventricles
    • CAD
    • cardiomyopathy
  34. cause a decrease in ciculation blood volume and a decrease in stroke volume
    • hemorrahage
    • dehydration
  35. what are the valves doing in the S1 and S2 sounds
  36. supplies myocardium with O2 and nutrients
    removes wastes
    coronary artery circulation
  37. these fill during ventricular diastole
    coronary arteries
  38. most abundant blood supply
    left coronary artery
  39. the amount of blood ejected from the left vent. each min
    cardiac output
  40. normal cardiac output is
  41. amount of blood ejected from the left vent. with each contraction
    stroke volume
  42. blood in the left vent. at the end of diastole
  43. resistance to left vent. ejection
  44. pacemaker of the heart
    SA node
  45. influences the rate of impulse generation and speed of conduction pathways
    autonomic nervous system
  46. increases the rate of impulse generated and impulse transmission and innervates all parts of atria and ventricle
    sympathetic nervous system
  47. decreases the rate and innervates atria, ventricles and SA and AV nodes
    parasympathetic system
  48. in the right atrium next to the entrance of the Superior vena cava
    SA node
  49. electrical impulses are transmitted thru the atria along intraatrial pathways
    mediates impulses between atria and the ventricles
    AV node
  50. atrial depolarization
    P wave
  51. Electrical conduction from SA node to purkinje fibers
    PR interval
  52. ventricular depolarization
    QRS complex
  53. ventricular repolarization
    T wave
  54. regular or irregular
    R to R intervals
  55. the process of moving gases into and out of the lungs
  56. intraplural pressure is ________ or less then atmospheric pressure
  57. major muscle of respiration and is innervated by the pherenic nerve
  58. the ability of the cardiovascular system to pump oxygenated blood to the tissues and return deoxygenated blood to the lungs
  59. responsible for moving respiratory gases from one area to another
  60. active process stimulated by chemical receptors in the aorta
  61. passive process that depends on elastic recoil properties of the lungs, requiring little or no muscle work
  62. moves blood to and from the alveolar capillary membranes for gas exchange
    pulmonary circulation
  63. exchange of respiratory gases in the alveoli and capillaries
    O2 is transferred from the lungs to the blood
    Co2 is transfered from the blood to the alveoli and exhaled
  64. consists of lungs and cardiovascular system
    depends on the amount of O2 entering the lungs, blood flow to the lungs and tissues, rate of diffusion, and O2 carrying compacity
    oxygen transport system
  65. diffuses into red blood cells and is hydrated into carbonic acid (H2CO3)
    carbon dioxide transport
  66. extracellular fluid loss and reduced circulation blood volume
  67. caused by electrical impulses that do not originate from the SA node (dysrhythmias)
    disturbances in conduction
  68. reduce cardiac output by decreasing diastolic filling time
  69. lower cardiac output because of decreased heart rate
  70. electrical impulses are choatic and originates from multiple sites
    A fib
  71. characterized by pink frothy sputum
    left sided heart failure
  72. is acquired or congenital disorder of a cardiac valve by stenosis or regurgitation
    impaired valvular function
  73. coronary artery flow to the myocardium is insufficient to meet myocardial oxygen demands
    myocardial ischemia
  74. ventilation in excess of that required to eliminate carbon dioxide preduced by cellular metabolism
  75. alveolar ventilation inadequate to meet the bodys oxygen demand or to eliminate sufficient carbon dioxide
  76. inadequate tissue oxygenation at the cellular level
  77. blue discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes desaturated hemoglobin
  78. used when the client can cough effectively but is not able to clear secretion
    oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal suctioning
  79. used when the client is unable to manage secretions
    orotracheal and nasotracheal
  80. prevents obstruction of the trachea by displacement of the tounge into oropharynx
    oral airway
  81. short-term use to ventilate, relieve upper airway obstruction, protect against aspiration, clear secretions
    endotracheal airway
  82. long term assistance, surgical incision made into trachea
  83. reduced pulmonary stasis, maintains ventilation and oxygenation
  84. encourages voluntary deep breathing
    incentive spirometry
  85. a catheter placed through the thorax to remove air and fluids from the pleural space or to prevent air from reentering or to reestablish intrapleural and intrapulmonic pressures
    chest tubes
  86. to prevent or relieve hypoxia
    oxygenation therapy
  87. CO2 is a toxic inhalant that decreases the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood bye
    forming a strong bond with hemoglobin
  88. fever increases the tissues need for oxygen, and as a result, CO2 production
  89. movement of a solvent across a semipermeable membrane from an area of low solute concentration to and aread of higher solute concentration
  90. both sides are equal
  91. high osmotic pressure
    pulls fluid from the cells causing them to shrink
  92. lower osmotic pressure
    moves fluid into the cells, causing them to enlarge
  93. random movement of a solute in a solution from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration
  94. process by which H2O and diffusable substances move together across a membrane in response to fluid pressure, moving from high to lower concentration
  95. requires energy
    allows cells to admit bigger molecules
    moves molecules from areas of lower concentration to high concentration "uphill"
    active transport
  96. thirst control center is in the
  97. increases osmotic pressure and stimulates thirst response
  98. average fluid intake
    2200-2700 mL/day
  99. stored in posterior pituitary gland
    released in response to changes in blood osmolarity
    prevenets diuresis causing the body to save H2O
    ADH anti diurtetic hormone
  100. secreted by the kidneys
    causes massive vasoconstriction and increases blood flow to the kidneys
  101. overall effecet is Na and H2O retension
    renin-angiotension aldosterone mech.
  102. released by adrenal cortex in response to elevated K
    increases reabsorbtion of Na
  103. secreted from the atrial cells of the heart in response to atrial stretching and increased blood circulating volume
    acts as a diuretic that causes Na to decrease and inhibits thirst mechanism
    atrial natriuretic peptid (ANP)
  104. Cl follows ____
  105. when one leaves the other one enters
    Na and K
  106. most abundant cation is
  107. when one cation leaves the cell it is ______
    replaced by another
  108. regulated by dietary intake and aldosterone
    nerve impulses and transmission
    Na regulation
  109. regulated by renal excreation
  110. stored in bone, plasma, and body cells
    binds to the protein Albumin
    Ca regulation
  111. regulated by renal mechanism, and parathyroid hormone
    Mg regulation
  112. transport of this follows Na
    regulated by kidneys and dietary intake
  113. major chemical base buffer in the body
    found in both ECF and ICF
    regulated by the kidneys
  114. regulated by renal excretion, intestinal absorbtioin and PTH
    assists in acid base regulation
    Phosphorus-phosphate regulation (PO34-)
  115. inversly proportional
    if one rises the other one falls
    Ca and PO34-
  116. include the lungs and kidneys
    buffering systems neutralize acids and bases
    regulation of acid base
  117. absorb of release H to correct an acid imbalance
  118. the high the hydrogen the more
  119. control excretion of H and HCO3
  120. absorbed or released by cells
    when it enters a cell K leaves and enters the ECF, causing raised K
  121. located in the lungs and kidneys
    higher Hydrogen and CO2 stimulate respiration
  122. with this condition respirations go up and acidic levels go down
    metabolic acidosis
  123. in this condition respirations decrese and acidic levels increase
    metabolic alkalosis
  124. this imbalance is a common cause of seizures and postural hypotension
    Cl levels will follow
  125. these imbalances are a common cause of cardiac arrthymias and ECG abnormalities
    K, Ca, Mg
  126. this imbalance causes muscle weakness and GI disturbances
  127. common cause of hypoactive reflexes, weakness, kidney stones
  128. common cause of hyperactive reflexes, numbness, tingling and muscle cramps
  129. nonpermeable
    cant go in and out
    bound to the plasma
    blood products
    increase RBC, intravenous volume
    have platelets and clotting factor
  130. permeable IV solution
    isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic
  131. used when administering blood products in order to prevent hemolysis of RBCs
    Normal Saline
  132. must be changes after 24 hours
  133. must be changed after 72 hours
    • IV tubing
    • dressing unless soiled
  134. must be changes after 48 hours
  135. is like a sponge pulling fluid in intravascular space
  136. can be caused by meds and trauma
    treated with moist heat
    redness and warmth at site
  137. fluid in tissue
    pallor, pain, cold, edema
    apply moist heat
  138. can be caused by the insertion of a central line
  139. result in itching, raised temperature, and raised blood pressure
    blood transfusion reactions
  140. pain that is somatic, visceral, or neurpathic
    inferred physiological
  141. pain in the muscles, skin or skeletal
  142. pain in the organs
  143. pain in the nerves
  144. the goal of this type of care is to learn hor to live life fully
    palliative care
  145. are programs for end of life care
  146. An active, organized, cognitive process used to carefully examine ones thinking and the thinking of others
  147. recognizing an issue exists, analyzing information, evaluating information and making conclusion
    Settersten and Lauer
  148. the ability to solve complex problems effectivley
  149. information you obtain through the use of senses
  150. your judgement or interpretation of cues
  151. describes the clients self-report of health and well being; how client manages health; knowledge of preventative health practices
    Health-preception-health management pattern
  152. describes the clients daily/weekly pattern of food and fluid intake
    actual weight, weight loss or gain
    nutritional-metabolic pattern
  153. descrives patterns of excretory function
    (bowel, bladder, skin)
    elimination pattern
  154. describes patterns of exercise, activity, leisure, and recreation; ability to perform activitys of daily living
    activity exercise pattern
  155. describes patterns of sleep, rest, and relaxation
    sleep-rest pattern
  156. describes sensory-perceptual patterns; language adequacy, memory, decision making ability
    cognitive-perceptual patter
  157. describes the clients self concept pattern and perceptions of self
    self perception-self concept pattern
  158. describes the clients patterns of role engagements and relationships
    role-relationship pattern
  159. describes the clients patterns of satisfaction and dissatisfaction with sexuality pattern; clients reproductive patterns;
    sexualtiy- reproductive pattern