Anatomy Ch 9

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Anatomy Ch 9
2010-10-17 13:45:30
Anatomy Joints

Lecture and book notes for Ch 9 Joints
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  1. The structural classification of joints is based on:
    • 1) absence or presence of a synovial cavity (space between articulating bones)
    • 2) type of connective tissue that binds bones together
  2. Structural joint classifications:
    • 1) Fibrous joint - no synovial cavity - Dense irregular CT (collagen fibers)
    • 2) Cartilaginous joint - no synovial cavity - cartilage
    • 3) Synovial joints - synovial cavity - dense irregular CT in articular capsule
  3. Functional joint classifications:
    • 1) Synarthrosis - immovable joint
    • 2) Amphiarthrosis - slightly movable joint
    • 3) Diarthrosis - freely moving joint - ALL diarthroses are synovial joints
  4. Fibrous joint
    types of fibrous joint
    • fibrous joints - no synovial cavity - articulating bones held close together by dense irregular CT - little or no movement -
    • 1) sutures
    • 2) syndesmoses
    • 3) interosseous membranes
  5. suture
    fibrous joint composed of a thin layer of dense irregular CT - only occur between bones in the skull

    Synarthrosis - no movment
  6. syndesmosis
    • fibrous joint where there is greater distance between the articulating surfaces and more dense irregular CT than in a suture
    • tibia & fibula connected by ligaments
    • amphiarthrosis - slight movement

    • gomphosis - called a dentoalveolar joint - type of syndesmosis - cone shape pet fits in socket (roots of teeth and their sockets)
    • synarthrosis - no movement
  7. interosseous membrane
    • sheet of dense irregular CT that binds neighboring long bones - permits slight movement -
    • amphiarthrosis - slight movement
    • radius & ulna of forearm
  8. cartilaginous joint
    types of cartilaginous joint
    • no synovial cavity - little or no movement
    • articulating bones connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage
    • 1) synchondroses
    • 2) symphyses
  9. synchondroses
    • cartilaginous joint - hyaline cartilage
    • epiphyseal plate
    • synarthrosis - no movment
  10. symphyses
    • cartilaginous joint - ends of articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage and a broad flat disk of fibrocartilage connects the bones.
    • ALL symphyses occur in the midline of the body
    • pubic symphysis - amphiarthrosis - slight movement
  11. Synovial joint
    parts of a synovial joint
    have a synovial cavity - diarthrosis - freely loving

    • 1) synovial cavity - space between articulating bones
    • 2) articular cartilage - bones at a synovial joint are covered with hyaline cartialge
    • 3) articular capsule - surrounds a synovial joint, encloses the synovial cavity, and unites the articulating bones. Composed of two layers:
    • a) fibrous membrane - outer - dense irregular CT (collagen fibers arranged in bundles = ligaments) that attaches to the periosteum of articulating bones
    • b) synovial membrane - areolar CT (elastic fibers) - inner layer -secretes synovial fluid - synovial membrane can include Articular Fat Pads - accumulations of adipose tissue
    • 4) Synovial fluid - viscous, clear or pale yellow fluid
    • forms a film over surfaces in articular capsule
    • supplies O2 & nutrients and removes waste form chrondrocytes in articular cartilage
    • 5) Accessory ligaments
    • extracapsular ligaments = outside the capsule
    • intracapsular ligaments = within the capsule but excluded from synovial cavity by a fold in the synovial membrane
    • 6) articular discs - menisci - pads of fibrocartilage that lie between the articular surfaces of the bones and are attached to the fibrous capsule
    • subdivide the synovial cavity
    • allows different shape bones to fit together
    • help maintain stability of a joint
    • allow for separate movement in different joint compartments
    • direct the flow of synovial fluid to areas of most friction
  12. sprain
    forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint that stretches or tears its ligaments but does not dislocate the bones -occurs with ligaments are stretched beyond normal capacity
  13. strain
    stretched or partially torn muscle or muscle and tendon - occurs when a muscle contracts suddenly and powerfully
  14. bursa (bursae)
    • purses - saclike structures that alleviate friction in some joints (shoulder and knee) cushion movement of body parts against one another
    • resemble synovial capsules because walls consists of connective tissue lined by synovial membrane - filled with small amount of fluid similar to synovial fluid
    • can be located between skin and bones, tendons and bones, muscles and bones, ligaments and bones
  15. tendon sheath
    • reduce friction at joints
    • tubelike bursae that wrap around certain tendons and experience considerable friction (where tendons pass through synovial cavities
  16. bursitis
    • acute or chronic inflammation of a bursa
    • caused by irritation from: repeated excessive exertion of a joint, trauma, acute or chronic infection , rheumatiod arthritis
    • symptoms include: pain, swelling, tenderness, limited movement
  17. gliding
    • simple movement in which relatively flat bones move back-and-forth and side-to-side with respect to one another
    • intercarpal joints
  18. flexion
    movement where there is a decrease in the angle between articulating bones (bend arm at elbow)
  19. extension
    movement where there is an increase in the angle between atriculating bones (unbend bent elbow)
  20. hyperextension
    continuation of an extension beyond anatomical position - (moving palm backward at the wrist joint)
  21. lateral flexion
    movement of the trunk in the frontal plane (movement of trunk sideways to the right or left at the waist)
  22. abduction
    movement of bone away from the midline, usually in the frontal plane (lifting arm laterally at the shoulder)
  23. adduction
    movement of a bone toward the midline, usually in the frontal plane (lowering arm laterally to anatomical position)
  24. circumdiction
    moving the distal end of a body part in a circle
  25. rotation
    • movement of bone around its longitudinal axis; in the limbs it may be medial (toward midline) or lateral (away from midline)
    • shaking head no
  26. elevation
    upward movement of a body part (close mouth, shrug shoulders)
  27. Depression
    downward movement of part of the body (open mouth, returning shrugged shoulder to original position)
  28. protraction
    movement of a part of the body anteriorly in the transverse plane (thrusting jaw forward, protract clavicle by crossing arms)
  29. retraction
    • posterior movement of a body part in the transverse plane
    • returning protracted part of the body back to anatomical position (moving thrust forward mandible back to normal position)
  30. inversion
    medial movement of the sole
  31. eversion
    lateral movement of the sole
  32. dorsiflexion
    Bending the foot in the direction of the dorsum (superior surface) - stand on heels
  33. plantar flexion
    Bending the foot in the direction of the plantar surface (sole) - standing on toes
  34. supination
    movement of the forearm that turns the palm anteriorly
  35. pronation
    movement of the forearm that turns the palm posteriorly
  36. opposition
    movement of the thumb across the palm to touch fingertips on the same hand
  37. Planar joints
    • articular surfaces of bones are mostly flat
    • primarily gliding movements
    • non-axial - motion doesn't occur around an axis
    • ex intercarpal joints
  38. Hinge joint
    • Convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another bone
    • angular opening and closing motion
    • most often one bone stays still and the other moves around an axis
    • mon-axial (uni-axial) - motion around a single axis
    • hinge allow only flexion and extension - knee, elbow
  39. Pivot joints
    • rounded or pointed surface of one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by another bone and partly by a ligament
    • mon-axial because it only allows rotation around its own logitudinal axis - atlanto-axial joint (shake head no)
  40. Condyloid joints (ellipsoidal joints)
    • convex oval shaped projections of one bone fits into an oval shaped depression of another bone
    • bi-axial movement it permits is around two axes (wrist)
  41. Saddle Joints
    • The articular surface of one bone is saddle shaped - the articular surface of the other bone fits into the "saddle" like a rider
    • bi-axial - two axes (joint between trapezium and metacarpal of the thumb)
  42. ball-and-socket joints
    • ball like surface of one bone fits into a cup-like depression of another bone
    • multi-axial - permit movement around three axes plus all directions in between (shoulder joint, hip joint)
  43. Factors affecting contact & range of motion (ROM)
    • 1. structure or shape of articulating bones - shape determines how close bones fit together
    • 2. strength and tension (tautness) of the joint ligaments -tense ligaments restrict range of motion
    • 3. arrangement and tension of the muscles
    • 4. contact of soft parts
    • 5. hormones
    • 6. disuse
  44. TMJ temporomandibular joint
    combined hinge and planar joint formed by the condylar process of the mandible and the mandibular fossa and articular tubercle of the temporal bone
  45. dislocation
    displacement of a bone from a joint with tearing of ligaments, tendons, and articular capsules
  46. glenoid labrum
  47. glenoid labrum
    • part of shoulder joint
    • narrow rim of fibrocartilage around the edge of the glenoid cavity that slightly deepens and enlarges the glenoid cavity
  48. acetabular labrum
    • part of hip joint
    • fibrocartilage rim attached tot he margin of the acetabulum that enhances the depth of the acetabulum
  49. rotator cuff injury
    • strain or tear in the rotator cuff muscles (sometimes due to vigorous circumdiction - baseball pitchers)
  50. anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)

    posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
    part of knee joint

    • ACL - extends posteriorly and laterally from a point anterior to the intercondylar area of the tibia to the posterior part of the medial surface of the lateral condyle of the femur
    • limits hyperextention of the knee

    PCL - extends anteriorly and medially from a depression on the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia and lateral meniscus to the anterior part of the lateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur

  51. arthroplasty
    joints that have been severly damaged by diseases such as arthritis, or injury, may be replaced surgically with artificial joints - knee, hip, shoulder
  52. rheumatism
    • any painful disorder of the supporting structures of the body - bones, ligaments, tendons, or muscles that are not caused by infection or injury
    • 1. arthritis - joints are swollen, stiff, and painful
    • 2. Osteoarthritis - degenerative joint disease in which joint cartilage is gradually lost - results from aging, obesity, irritation of the joints, muscle weakness, and wear and abrasion - most common type of arthritis
    • 3. rheumatoid arthritis - autoimmune disease in which the immune system of the body attacks its own tissues - cartilage and joint linings -RA is characterized by inflammation of the joint, which causes swelling, pain, and loss of function
    • 4. Gout - excessive amount of uric acid cause uric acid buildup in the blood - reacts with sodium to form sodium urate crystals in soft tissue and joints
    • 5. Gouty arthritis - sodium urate in joints feet. crystals irritate and erode cartilage causing inflammation, swlling , and pain