Week 3 patho ch 3 & 4

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ekruge01
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Week 3 patho ch 3 & 4
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2010-10-18 15:25:18
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pathophysiology
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some pathophysiology questions
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  1. What are the 4 body defenses?
    • 1. skin with "normal flora"
    • 2. Repsitory tract
    • 3. Stomach acid
    • 4. immune system
  2. What is the skin's pH?
    5 (acid mantle)
  3. What is the pH of the stomach?
    2
  4. What key parts of the respiratory tract help with bacteria? (3)
    • 1. cilia
    • 2. nose hair
    • 3. cough reflex
  5. What are the kep parts of the immune system?(2)
    • 1. WBCs
    • 2. antibodies
  6. What is auto-immune disease?
    immune system attacks its own host (body)
  7. What is the GOAL of immune responses? (2)
    • 1. recognize
    • &
    • 2. remove
    • percieved threats to the body
  8. What are some percieved threats to the body? (3)
    • 1. toxins
    • 2. microorganisms
    • 3. foreign cells
  9. What ARE immune responses?
    A specific response customized to each type of antigen (trigger)
  10. What is an antigen?
    any substance that stimulates the production of antibodies
  11. The immune responses require what to produce immune cells?
    healthy bone marrow
  12. (immune responses) When a bone marrow produces immune cells, what are the 2 paths these immune cells can take?
    • 1. thymus (stem cells mature into T cells)
    • 2. blood (already mature cells can make antibodies)
  13. 1. Transplant patients need to take what kind of drugs? 2. why?
    • 1. immune-suppressant drugs
    • 2. so their immune system doesn't attack their new transplant
  14. (immune responses) T-cells manage "cell-mediated immunity" to attack antigens?
    INSIDE the cell
  15. (immune responses) What do T cells produce?
    cytokinines
  16. (Immune responses) What do cytokinines cause physiologically? (2)
    • 1. fever
    • 2. increase in WBC's
  17. (immune responses) when proteins on surface of T-cell recognize a specific antigen they?
    • kill off:
    • 1. cancer
    • 2. protozoa
    • 3. viruses
    • 4. transplanted organs
  18. (immune response) B cells (B-lymphocytes) manage "bone marrow/humoral immunity to attack viruses?
    OUTSIDE the cell
  19. (immune responses) what do B-cells produce?
    antibodies
  20. (immune responses) 1. what are antibodies? 2. what is another name for them? 3. where are they stored? (2)
    • 1. Y-shaped proteins on the surface of B-cells which will bind to antigens and inactivate them
    • 2. immunoglobulins
    • 3. A. lymph nodes
    • B. B. Spleen
  21. (immune response) What cells of the immune system work together? (2)
    • 1. T-cells
    • 2. B-cells
  22. What are the 5 classes of antibodies?
    • 1. IgM
    • 2. IgA
    • 3. IgD
    • 4. IgG
    • 5. IgE
  23. 1. What makes up the largest percent of anitbodies? 2. What is the percentage?
    • 1. IgG
    • 2. 75%
  24. What is a titer?
    Blood test that measures levels of anitbodies.
  25. What is immunity? (3)
    • The power of an organism to resist/overcome the effects of:
    • 1. bacteria
    • 2. virus
    • 3. other microorganism
  26. What are the natural immunities? (2) Describe them.
    • 1. Active- through exposure to a disease
    • 2. passive- antibodies from mother's milk or through placenta
  27. What are the artificial immunities? (2) describe them.
    • 1. active- through injection or oral ingestion of antigens
    • 2. passive- through injections of antibodies
  28. What is a vaccine?
    Specially prepared antigens (altered virus particles) which by ingestion/injection are placed into the body to stimulate antibody production. (DOES NOT CAUSE DISEASE ITSELF!)
  29. What is a booster?
    Repeated dose of a vaccine to ensure immunity.
  30. What is immuno-competence?
    Ability of the body to produce a successful immune response.
  31. What is immuno-incompetence?
    lowered to no ability to produce successful immune responses.
  32. 1. How fast is artificial passive immunity? 2. What does this help with?
    • 1. immediate
    • 2. helps if you need to save time because the person has little or no immunity.
  33. What are the causes of immuno-incompetence? (7)
    • 1. stress
    • 2. chemotx
    • 3. RT
    • 4. newborns
    • 5. elderly
    • 6. HIV/AIDS
    • 7. steroid tx
  34. What is a latent disease?
    a hiding/sleeping disease
  35. What is an important fact about latent diseases?
    They may resurface.
  36. Most hypersensitivity recations are due to?
    food allergies
  37. What is a hypersensitivity reaction by the immune response?
    Overreaction to what in most people is a harmless anitgen
  38. What puts people at a higher risk to have hypersensitivity?
    If a family member has an allergy
  39. What is anaphylaxis?
    A life-threatening allergic reaction.
  40. What are the S&S of anaphylaxis? (6)
    • 1. uticaria
    • 2. profuse vasodilation
    • 3. increase BP, decrease P
    • 4. Respiratory Tract edema (leads to bronchioconstriction)
    • 5. hypoxemia (leads to syncope)
    • 6. Anxiety
  41. What immune responses produce IgG? (2)
    • 1. secondary
    • 2. primary
  42. What does IgG activate?
    complement
  43. What is complement?
    A series of inactive proteins circulating in the blood
  44. When complement is activated, what can the proteins ciculating in the blood do? (2)
    • 1. destroy bacteria or antigens
    • 2. participate in inflammatory response
  45. What type of antibodies can IgG be? (3)
    • 1. antibacterial
    • 2. antiviral
    • 3. antitoxin
    • ANTIBODIES
  46. What does IgG do in a fetus? (2)
    • 1. Crosses the placenta
    • 2. creates passive immunity
  47. What does IgE bind to? (2)
    • 1. mast cells in skin
    • 2. mucous membranes
  48. When IgE links to an allergen, what does this cause? (2)
    • 1. release of histamine and other chemicals
    • RESULTING IN:
    • 2. inflammation
  49. How is anaphylaxis treated? (3)
    • 1. antihistamines
    • 2. oxygen
    • 3. epinephrine
  50. What is a pathogen? (4)
    • microorganism or other agent which can cause disease. Usually:
    • 1. bacteria
    • 2. fungi
    • 3. virus
    • 4. protozoa
  51. What are the basic structures of a bacteria? (4)
    • 1. cell wall
    • 2. cell membrane
    • 3. cytoplasm
    • 4. DNA (floats freely in cytoplasm NOT IN NUCLEUS)
    • 5. some form spores
  52. What are the basic strutures of fungus? (3)
    • 1. cell wall
    • 2. hyphae
    • 3. eukaryotic
  53. What are the basic structures of a virus? (2)
    • 1. Capsid
    • 2. Nucelic acid core of either RNA or DNA
  54. Are bacteria able to reproduce without a host cell?
    YES
  55. What is "gram negative" bacteria?
    Cell wall does not bind to dye: pink
  56. What is "gram positive" bacteria?
    Cell wall does bind with dye: purple
  57. What does a virus cause in cells?
    They reproduce in them causing them to lyse.
  58. How long can a virus live outside a host?
    not very long, but can live a few days on a dry surface!
  59. What are helminths?
    parasitic worms
  60. Where do helminths usually live? (2)
    • 1. intestines
    • 2. blood
  61. What is the lifecycle for helminths?(3)
    ovum->larva->adult worm
  62. What is the lab test for helminths? (2)
    • by looking for ova and parasites in:
    • 1. stool
    • or
    • 2. blood
  63. What is a nosocomial infection?
    A type of iatrogenic disease in which microbes enter a patient while in a hospital.
  64. What is the most common route of infection?
    Hands

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