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What are the 4 body defenses?
- 1. skin with "normal flora"
- 2. Repsitory tract
- 3. Stomach acid
- 4. immune system
What is the skin's pH?
5 (acid mantle)
What is the pH of the stomach?
What key parts of the respiratory tract help with bacteria? (3)
- 1. cilia
- 2. nose hair
- 3. cough reflex
What are the kep parts of the immune system?(2)
What is auto-immune disease?
immune system attacks its own host (body)
What is the GOAL of immune responses? (2)
- 1. recognize
- 2. remove
- percieved threats to the body
What are some percieved threats to the body? (3)
- 1. toxins
- 2. microorganisms
- 3. foreign cells
What ARE immune responses?
A specific response customized to each type of antigen (trigger)
What is an antigen?
any substance that stimulates the production of antibodies
The immune responses require what to produce immune cells?
healthy bone marrow
(immune responses) When a bone marrow produces immune cells, what are the 2 paths these immune cells can take?
- 1. thymus (stem cells mature into T cells)
- 2. blood (already mature cells can make antibodies)
1. Transplant patients need to take what kind of drugs? 2. why?
- 1. immune-suppressant drugs
- 2. so their immune system doesn't attack their new transplant
(immune responses) T-cells manage "cell-mediated immunity" to attack antigens?
INSIDE the cell
(immune responses) What do T cells produce?
(Immune responses) What do cytokinines cause physiologically? (2)
- 1. fever
- 2. increase in WBC's
(immune responses) when proteins on surface of T-cell recognize a specific antigen they?
- kill off:
- 1. cancer
- 2. protozoa
- 3. viruses
- 4. transplanted organs
(immune response) B cells (B-lymphocytes) manage "bone marrow/humoral immunity to attack viruses?
OUTSIDE the cell
(immune responses) what do B-cells produce?
(immune responses) 1. what are antibodies? 2. what is another name for them? 3. where are they stored? (2)
- 1. Y-shaped proteins on the surface of B-cells which will bind to antigens and inactivate them
- 2. immunoglobulins
- 3. A. lymph nodes
- B. B. Spleen
(immune response) What cells of the immune system work together? (2)
What are the 5 classes of antibodies?
- 1. IgM
- 2. IgA
- 3. IgD
- 4. IgG
- 5. IgE
1. What makes up the largest percent of anitbodies? 2. What is the percentage?
What is a titer?
Blood test that measures levels of anitbodies.
What is immunity? (3)
- The power of an organism to resist/overcome the effects of:
- 1. bacteria
- 2. virus
- 3. other microorganism
What are the natural immunities? (2) Describe them.
- 1. Active- through exposure to a disease
- 2. passive- antibodies from mother's milk or through placenta
What are the artificial immunities? (2) describe them.
- 1. active- through injection or oral ingestion of antigens
- 2. passive- through injections of antibodies
What is a vaccine?
Specially prepared antigens (altered virus particles) which by ingestion/injection are placed into the body to stimulate antibody production. (DOES NOT CAUSE DISEASE ITSELF!)
What is a booster?
Repeated dose of a vaccine to ensure immunity.
What is immuno-competence?
Ability of the body to produce a successful immune response.
What is immuno-incompetence?
lowered to no ability to produce successful immune responses.
1. How fast is artificial passive immunity? 2. What does this help with?
- 1. immediate
- 2. helps if you need to save time because the person has little or no immunity.
What are the causes of immuno-incompetence? (7)
- 1. stress
- 2. chemotx
- 3. RT
- 4. newborns
- 5. elderly
- 6. HIV/AIDS
- 7. steroid tx
What is a latent disease?
a hiding/sleeping disease
What is an important fact about latent diseases?
They may resurface.
Most hypersensitivity recations are due to?
What is a hypersensitivity reaction by the immune response?
Overreaction to what in most people is a harmless anitgen
What puts people at a higher risk to have hypersensitivity?
If a family member has an allergy
What is anaphylaxis?
A life-threatening allergic reaction.
What are the S&S of anaphylaxis? (6)
- 1. uticaria
- 2. profuse vasodilation
- 3. increase BP, decrease P
- 4. Respiratory Tract edema (leads to bronchioconstriction)
- 5. hypoxemia (leads to syncope)
- 6. Anxiety
What immune responses produce IgG? (2)
What does IgG activate?
What is complement?
A series of inactive proteins circulating in the blood
When complement is activated, what can the proteins ciculating in the blood do? (2)
- 1. destroy bacteria or antigens
- 2. participate in inflammatory response
What type of antibodies can IgG be? (3)
- 1. antibacterial
- 2. antiviral
- 3. antitoxin
What does IgG do in a fetus? (2)
- 1. Crosses the placenta
- 2. creates passive immunity
What does IgE bind to? (2)
- 1. mast cells in skin
- 2. mucous membranes
When IgE links to an allergen, what does this cause? (2)
- 1. release of histamine and other chemicals
- RESULTING IN:
- 2. inflammation
How is anaphylaxis treated? (3)
- 1. antihistamines
- 2. oxygen
- 3. epinephrine
What is a pathogen? (4)
- microorganism or other agent which can cause disease. Usually:
- 1. bacteria
- 2. fungi
- 3. virus
- 4. protozoa
What are the basic structures of a bacteria? (4)
- 1. cell wall
- 2. cell membrane
- 3. cytoplasm
- 4. DNA (floats freely in cytoplasm NOT IN NUCLEUS)
- 5. some form spores
What are the basic strutures of fungus? (3)
- 1. cell wall
- 2. hyphae
- 3. eukaryotic
What are the basic structures of a virus? (2)
- 1. Capsid
- 2. Nucelic acid core of either RNA or DNA
Are bacteria able to reproduce without a host cell?
What is "gram negative" bacteria?
Cell wall does not bind to dye: pink
What is "gram positive" bacteria?
Cell wall does bind with dye: purple
What does a virus cause in cells?
They reproduce in them causing them to lyse.
How long can a virus live outside a host?
not very long, but can live a few days on a dry surface!
What are helminths?
Where do helminths usually live? (2)
What is the lifecycle for helminths?(3)
What is the lab test for helminths? (2)
- by looking for ova and parasites in:
- 1. stool
- 2. blood
What is a nosocomial infection?
A type of iatrogenic disease in which microbes enter a patient while in a hospital.
What is the most common route of infection?