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Know how the growth rates in various ethnic groups compare
Children of African descent are tallest, then Europeans, Asians, and Latinos
Understand the eating habits of young children
Apetite decreases between ages 2-6
Know what lateralization means
Sideness: One side of brain is dominant for each activity
Know the difference between gross motor skills and fine motor skills
- Gross: Large body movements (improve drastically)
- Fine: Small body movements (hard to master)
Understand the just right stage
Have things done in certain way, preference of clothes, prefer certain foods
Understand how the brain continues to mature
- Age 2: 75% of brain weight
- Age 5: 90% of brain weight
Understand Piaget's terms: Centration, egocentrism, focus of appearance, static reasoning, and irreversibility
Centration: The tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation to the exclusion of all others.
Egocentrism: A particular type of centration, literally self-centeredness. To contemplate the world exclusively from one's own personal perspective
Focus of Appearance: Preoperational thought. A girl given a short haircut might worry that she has turned into a boy. In preoperational thought, a thing is whatever it appears to be.
Static Reasoning: Assuming that the world is unchanging, always in the state in which they currnetly encounter it
Irreversibility: Preoperational thinkers fail to recognize that reversing a process sometimes restores whatever existed before
Know how children use private speech
Talk outloud to themselves to review, decide, and explain events
Understand what guided participation means
The process by which people learn from others who guide their experience and explorations
What is Theory-Theory?
The idea that children attempt to explain everything they see and hear by constructing theories
Know what fast mapping is
The speedy way of which children learn new words by mentally charting them into catogories according to their meaning
Know Erikson's stage for the play years
Initiative vs. guilt
What is emotional regulation?
Ability to control when and how emotions are expressed
Know the types of aggression
- Instrumental- get or keep something
- Reactive- retaliation
- Bullying- repeat
Know Baumrind's Three Patterns of Parenting
- Authoritarian: Parents word is law, children are anxious
- Permissive: Parents make few demands, children are immature
- Authoritive: Set limits and enforce rules, children are happy
Know the typical growht rates for children in the school years
- 6-11 (2-3 in and 5-7 lb/yr)
- Girls gain fat at 9, smaller/lighter until age 9. Bones lengthen
- Boys gain muscle
What is reaction time?
The time it takes to respond to a stimulus
What is automatization?
Process in which repitition of a sequence of thoughts and actions makes the sequence routine, so that it no longer requires conscious thought
Understand how the Flynn Effect is changing standardized tests
Rise in IQ scores over ages. Environment affects you
Understand concrete operational thought and how children's understanding of reversibility improves
Collections of concepts that enable children to reason between 5 and 7
Understand how Information Processing works
Take in large amounts of information. Search for units of info, analize, and express analisis that others can interpret
Know what metacognition is
Ability to evaluate a cognitive task, determine how to accomplish it, moniter and adjust ones performance on the task
Know how children's understanding of the pragmatics of language improves
Young children know names of thousands of objects, and they understand many other parts of speech as well. School-age children are more flexible and logical in their knowledge and use of vocabulary, understanding metaphors, prefixes and suffixes, and compound words.
Know how social comparisons affect children's self-concepts
Helps them value the abiliteis they have
Know how peer groups form and change
Egocentrism and social comparison
Understand Table 13.1 on Kolberg's Three Levels and Six Stags of Moral Reasoning
Understand the four categories of social acceptance: Popular, neglected, aggressive-rejected, and aggressive-withdrawn