Muscle Types & Anatomy

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monchi
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Muscle Types & Anatomy
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2010-10-12 15:37:31
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Muscle Types Anatomy Lecture Dr Bryant IBHS Exam
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Muscle Types & Anatomy Lecture (Dr. Bryant) IBHS Exam 4
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  1. 3 Types of Muscle
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth
    • Skeletal
  2. Skeletal Muscle Tissue
    • Largest muscle Cells
    • Responsible for gross body movement
    • Multinucleated, striated (banded appearance)
    • AKA striated Voluntary Muscle (nervous system provides voluntary control)
    • Has SOME ability to repair itself
  3. T/F Muscle Cell = Muscle Fiber
    True
  4. Which muscle type is multinucleated?
    Skeletal Muscle
  5. What provides voluntary control of the Skeletal Muscle?
    The nervous system
  6. Skeletal Muscle Drugs target what receptor?
    Nicotinic ACh receptor
  7. ______________ binding to its receptors stimulate skeletal muscles to contract
    Acetylcholine
  8. Skeletal Muscle Drugs target the Nicotinic ACh receptor
    They are Cholinesterase inhibitors that decrease breakdown of ACh
    Used as treatment for Myasthenia gravis
    Examples are: Neostigmine, Pyridostigmine, Ambenonium
  9. Neostigmine, Pyridostigmine, & Ambenonium ... what type of muscle drugs?
    Skeletal Muscle Drugs, they are Cholinesterase inhitors that target the Nicotinic ACh receptor
  10. What enzyme breaks down ACh?
    Cholinesterase
  11. Cardiac Muscle Tissue
    • Located in ONLY in the Heart
    • Cells Smaller in size than skeletal muscle cells
    • Striated, Branched, Most have a SINGLE CENTRAL NUCLEUS
    • Contain INTERCALATED DISCS (gap junctions) where cells Connect
    • Limited ability to repair itself
    • Referred to as STRIATED INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE (relies on pacemaker cells)
  12. Striated Involuntary Muscle
    Cardiac Muscle Tissue
  13. Striated Voluntary Muscle
    Skeletal Muscle Tissue
  14. Cardiac Muscle

    Almost Completely dependent on (aerobic/anaerobic?) metabolism
    Aerobic metabolism

    • Glycogen & Lipids
    • High amount of Mitochondria
  15. Propery of Cardiac Muscle:

    Automaticity
    Contraction without stimulation by nervous system (relies on pacemaker cells)
  16. Cardiac Muscle:

    Myofibrils from cells are also anchored at intercalated discs: structural, electrical, chemical connection
    know as a FUNCTIONAL SYNCYTIUM (fused mass of cell)
  17. Gap Junctions where cardiac muscle cells connect to one another
    intercalated discs
  18. Which of the following muscle is known as a functional syncytium because all cells are doing the same thing at the same time?

    A. Cardiac Muscle
    B. Smooth Muscle
    C. Skeletal Muscle
    A. Cardiac Muscle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Cardiac Muscle Drugs

    Calcium Channel Blockers
    • Decreases heart rate and cardiac output
    • Examples: Verapamil, Diltiazem
    • Used as Antihypertensives, Anti-anginals, Anti-arrhymics
  20. Cardiac Muscle Drugs

    Beta-Blockers
    • Blocks affects of sympathetic nervous system stimulation
    • Examples: Metroprolol, Carvedilol, Atenolol
    • Used to treat Angina, Hypertension, Chronic Heart Failure, Cardiac Arrhythmias
  21. Cardiac Muscle Drugs

    Digoxin
    • Inhibits Na+/ K+ATPase, ultimately increases intracellular calcium
    • Acts to increase contractility
    • Used to treat heart failure
  22. Which of the following cardiac muscle drug inhibits Na+/K+ATPase and ultimately increases intracellular calcium?
    A. Pyridostigmine
    B. Diltiazem
    C. Digoxin
    D. Atenolol
    C. Digoxin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Name 2 Calcium Channel Blocker, Cardiac Muscle Drugs (which decrease heart rate cardiac output)
    Verapamil, Diltiazem
  24. Name the 3 Beta Blocker, Cardiac Muscle Drugs (they block the affect of sympathetic nervous system stimulation.)
    Metroprolol, Carvedilol, & Atenolol
  25. Smooth Muscle Tissue:
    • Located in walls of blood vessles, around hollow organs (urinary bladder) & in layers around the respiratory, circulatory, digestive and reproductive tracts
    • Small, Spindle-Shaped cells, Single Nucleus
    • Have ability to divide, repair after injury, no striations
    • Referred to as NONSTRIATED INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE (nervous system, hormones can affect smooth muscle)
  26. Which of the three muscle types is the only one that CANNOT repair itself?
    Cardiac Muscle
  27. Nonstriated Involuntary Muscle
    Smooth Muscle Tissue
  28. Smooth Muscle

    Thick & Thin filaments are not organized
    • Thick filaments scattered throughout the sarcoplasm
    • Thin filaments are attached to dense bodies
  29. Smooth Muscle

    Dense Bodies
    • Composed of desmin
    • Not arranged in straight line, so contractions cause cell to twist (corkscrew)
    • Bind together adjacent smooth muscle cells
  30. T/F: Dense bodies are arranged in a straight line.
    FALSE. Not arranged in straight line, so contractions cause cell to twist
  31. What are dense bodies composed of?
    Desmin
  32. Where are thin filaments found?
    Thin filaments are attached to dense bodies
  33. Where are thick filaments found?
    Thick filaments are scattered throughout the sarcoplasm
  34. Smooth Muscle Drugs

    Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
    • Blocks vasoconstriction to lower BP
    • Examples: Losartan (Cozaar), Valsartan (Diovan), Candesartan (Atacand)
    • Used to treat hypertension
  35. Smooth Muscle Drugs

    Organic Nitrates/ NO donors
    • Nitroglycerin is metabolized to NO
    • NO dilated veins and coronary arteries
    • Used to treat angina
  36. Smooth Muscle Drugs

    Bronchodilators
    • Sympathomimetics cause bronchodilation
    • Examples: Albuterol, Terbutaline, Salmeterol
    • Used to treat asthma
  37. Muscular System
    • Muscle fibers (aka cells) form bundles called fascicles
    • Muscle fibers in a single fascicle are parallel
    • The organization of fascicles can vary & the relationship between the fascicles & tendon
  38. Bundles of muscle fibers are called
    FASCICLES
  39. Fascicle Organization

    Parallel Muscles
    • Fascicles are parallel to long axis of muscle
    • Most Common type of organization
    • Ex: Biceps brachii muscle
  40. Fascicle Organization

    Convergent Muscles
    • Fascicles extend over a broad area & converge on a common attachment site (fan)
    • (direction of pull can change depending on part of muscle stimulated)
    • Ex: Pectoralis Muscles
  41. Fascicle Organization

    Circular Muscles (Sphincter)
    • Fascicles are concentrically arranged
    • During muscle contraction, diameter of opening decreases
    • Ex: Orbicularis Oris Muscle (lips ... kissing muscle) Diameter changes
  42. Fascicle Organization

    Pennate Muscle

    (Fascicles form a common angle with the tendon)
    • Unipennate: Muscle fiber on one side of tendon (ex. extensor digitorum muscle)
    • Bipennate: Muscle fibers on both sides of tendon (ex. rectus femoris)
    • Multipennate: When tendon branches within a pennate muscle (ex. deltoid muscle)

    * b/c muscle fibers pull at an angle, not as much movement is produced as parallel muscles*
  43. Levers (how muscle moves in relationship to bone and joint)

    First-Class Lever
    Seesaw: fulcrum is between applied force & load (lifting head)
  44. Levers (how muscle moves in relationship to bone and joint)

    Second-Class Lever
    Wheelbarrow: Fulcrum on end, load in middle (ex. raising up on toes)
  45. Levers (how muscle moves in relationship to bone and joint)

    Third-Class Lever
    Most common in body, applied force is between load and fulcrum (ex. contracting bicep muscle to lift arms)
  46. Of the three lever systems which is the most common in our body?
    Third-Class Lever
  47. Lifting head up is an example of which of the following?
    A. Fourth-Class Lever
    B. Third-Class Lever
    C. Second-Class Lever
    D. First-Class Lever
    D. First-Class Lever
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. The wheelbarrow scenario is an example of which of the following?
    A. First-Class Lever
    B. Fourth-Class Lever
    C. Second-Class Lever
    D. Third-Class Lever
    C. Second-Class Lever
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Muscle Terminology
    ORIGIN: Fixed end
    INSERTION: Free (movable) end
    Action: Movement
    AGONIST: main muscle repsonsible for movement
    ANTAGONIST: muscle who's action opposes a particular agonist
  50. Muscle Terminology:

    Fixed end
    Origin
  51. Muscle Terminology:


    Free (moveable) end
    Insertion
  52. Muscle Terminology:

    Main Muscle responsible for movement
    Agonist
  53. Muscle Terminology:

    Muscle who's action opposes a particular agonist
    Antagonist
  54. Muscles of Mastication (aka chewing)
    Buccinator-Moves food around in mouth
    Masseter-Elevates mandible, closes jaw
    Temporalis- elevates mandible
    Pterygoids (medial & lateral)
    Medial- closes jaw
    Lateral- opens jaw
  55. Muscles of Mastication

    Moves food around in mouth
    Buccinator
  56. Muscles of Mastication

    Elevates mandible, closes jaw
    Masseter
  57. Muscles of Mastication

    Elevates Mandible
    Temporalis
  58. Muscles of Mastication

    Pterygoids: CLOSES jaws
    Medial
  59. Muscles of Mastication

    Pterygoids: Opens jaws
    Lateral
  60. Extrinsic Eye Muscles:
    • Inferior Rectus:Eyes look down
    • Medial Rectus: Eyes look medially
    • Lateral Rectus: Eye looks laterally
    • Superior Rectus: Eye looks up
    • Inferior Oblique: Eye rolls, looks up & laterally
    • Superior Oblique: Eye rolls, looks down & laterally
  61. If superior rectus is contracting the eye will look _______
    up
  62. If inferior rectus is contracting the eye will look _______
    down
  63. If superior oblique is contracting the eye will _______
    roll, look down & laterally
  64. Abdominal Muscles:

    Rectus Abdominus
    Depresses ribs, flexes, vertebral column, compresses abdomen
  65. Abdominal Muscles:

    Internal Oblique & External Oblique
    Compresses abdomen, depresses ribs, flexes or bends spine
  66. Which of the following flexes the vertebral column?
    A. Internal Oblique
    B. External Oblique
    C. Rectus Abdominus
    C. Rectus Abdominus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. Which of the following (more than one) compresses abdomen, depresses ribs, flexes or bends spine?
    1. Rectus abdominus
    2. Internal Oblique
    3. External Oblique
    4. Superior Oblique
    5. Inferior Oblique
    • 2. Internal Oblique
    • 3. External Oblique
  68. Muscles in the upper body:

    The muscle forming the rounded contour of the shoulder
    Deltoid
  69. Muscles in the upper body:

    What comprises the rotator cuff?
    Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres minor, Subscapularis (SITS)
  70. Muscles in the upper body:

    Large superficial muscle that extends longitudinally from the occipital bone to the lower thoracic vertebrae and laterally to the spine of the scapula (shoulder blade). Its functions are to move the scapulae and support the arm.
    Trapezius
  71. Muscles in the Upper Body:

    Important for breathing because it elevates and depresses ribs
    Internal Intercostals and External Intercostals
  72. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:
    • Inflammation: retinacula & synovial tendon sheaths
    • Compresses median nerve (innervates hand) - causes pain, tingling or numbness on palm
    • Treatment: Pain: aspirin, Inflammation: glucocorticoid injection, Splint to take pressure off.
  73. The 3 muscles that make up the hamstrings?
    • 1. Bicep Femoris
    • 2. Semitendinosus
    • 3. Semimembranosus
  74. The muscles that make up the quadriceps?
    • 1. Rectus Fermoris
    • 2. Vastus Lateralis
    • 3. Vastus Medialis
  75. Muscles that move foot and toes
    • Gastrocnemius, medial head
    • Soleus
    • Gastrocnemius, lateral head
    • Calcaneal tendon (which attaches the muscles to the calcaneus)
  76. Intramuscular (IM) Injections
    • Slower release than I.V. injection
    • Less irritation & more volume than s.c.
    • CAN inject Upto 5ml at Once
    • Common complications: Injection of blood vessel: possible fatality
    • Injection of a nerve: possible sensory loss or paralysis
    • Popular sites: Gluetues medius, deltoid, Vastus lateralis (best)
  77. Which is the best site of i.m. injections?
    vastus lateralis
  78. What is an example of a multipennate muscle?
    Deltoid muscle (when tendon branches within a pennate muscle)
  79. What muscles make up the quadriceps?
    Rectus femoris, vastus laterallis, vastus mediallis
  80. What are some popular sites for intramusclar injections?
    Gluteus medius, deltoid, vastus laterallis

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