biology.txt

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Author:
jss71
ID:
41440
Filename:
biology.txt
Updated:
2010-10-11 21:52:21
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Foundations biology
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Chapter 7
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  1. Cells are small because they need a
    surface area to volume ratio
  2. Small, usually circular, super coiled DNA molecules
    Plasmids. Plasmids contain genes but are physically independent of the main cellular chromosome.
  3. Protein filaments that help maintain cell shape
    cytoskeleton
  4. Bacteria Organelles preform an array of tasks:
    • * storing calcium ions and other key molecules
    • *holding crystals of mineral magnetite
    • *organizing enzymes responsible for synthesizing complex carbon bonds from carbon dioxide
    • * sequestering enzymes that generate chemical energy from ammonium ions
  5. Incompatible chemical reactions can be separated
    Chemical reactions become more efficient
    Compartmentalization
  6. Contains chromosomes and functions as an information storage and processing center
    nucleus
  7. Encloses the nucleus, double memberane
    nuclear envelope
  8. Nuclear envelope pore like openings, fibrous proteins that form a lattice-like sheet
    nuclear lamina
  9. DNA combines with proteins to form
    chormatin
  10. Before cell division, chromatin aggregates to form
    chromosomes
  11. Nuclear envelope contains membrane bound sacs
    endoplasmic reticulum
  12. Contains enzymes that catalyze reactions involving lipids
    Smooth ER
  13. Site of protein synthesis
    Ribosomes
  14. Endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus forms this system
    endomembrane system
  15. Consists of flattened, membranous sacs called cisternae which are stacked on top of each other
    Golgi apparatus
  16. Fluid proportion of the cytoplam
    cytosol
  17. complex molecular machines that manufacture proteins
    ribosomes
  18. these organelles have a singular membrane and originate as buds from the ER, are centered for oxidation reactions, collect toxic by-products of metabolism such as H2O2
    peroxisomes
  19. Functions as digestive center, originate from the Golgi Apparatus, contain single bilayer membrane
    lysosomes
  20. Damaged organelles are surrounded by a membrane and then delivered to a lysosome
    autophagy
  21. the plasma membrane of a cell surrounds a smaller cell or food particle and engulfs it forming a structure call a phagosome
    phagocytosis
  22. process by which the cell membrane can pinch off a vesicle to bring outside into the cell
    receptor-mediated endocytosis
  23. brings fluid into the cell
    pinocytosis
  24. Process of Phagocytosis
    detection, phagosome formation, delivery to lysosomes and digestion, release of particles into cytosol
  25. Process of Receptor-mediated endocytosis
    Macromolecule bind to receptors, early endosome forms, processing, digestive enzymes recieved, mature lysosome
  26. Special peroxisomes in plants, packed with enzymes that oxidize fats
    glyoxysomes
  27. Powerhouse of the cell, chemical energy required to build all these organelles and do other types of work comes from ATP produced from this organelle
    mitochondria
  28. Sunlight is converted into chemical energy during phtosynethesis in this organelle
    chlorplast
  29. branching, cagelike network that is almost impossible for enzymes to attack, found in secondary cell wall
    lignin

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