Why is proper positioning of the skull and sinuses critical?
to ensure bilateral symmetry and to permit an evaluation of the complex anatomy and structural relationships
What projection should be done if the patient can NOT stand/sit? Why is this important?
cross table lateral to demonstrate an air-fluid level
What are the Meninges and where are they located?
Pia mater-innermost layer adhering to the outer surface of the brain
Dura mater-tough, outermost layer
arachnoid membrane- cob weblike layer in between the two
What is mastoid ecchymosis also known as?
What is a Diastatic Fracture?
How does a linear skull fracture appear radiographically?
A depressed fracture is also known as what?
ping pong fracture
What is a hematoma between the skull and the dura that shows up as a bioconvex shape?
What type of hematoma is creasant shaped?
Why is the nasal bone the most common facial bone fracture?
smallest and more free floating bone
The "waters" view will demonstrate what? (facial bones)
bony nasal septum
What is a blow out fracture?
caused by a direct blow to the front of the orbit that causes a rapid increase in intraorbital pressure. Said to have a sagging hammocklike appearance or trap door variety
What is another term for the SMV view?
This is the most common area/site for a mandible fracture?
angle of the mandible
What is a Le Fort fracture?
separation at the fracture site results in the formation of a large, complex, detached fragment that is unstable and classified as type 1, 2, or 3
What is TIA?
Transient Ischemic attack (mini stroke)
What is another term for Cerebrovascular accident?
What is involved in a Tripod Fracture of the Zygoma?
the max. sinus, zygomatic arch, and lateral orbital rim
What is most commonly affeted with a stoke?
internal carotid arteries
What is the most commonly affected sinus with Sinusitits?
What is the difference between an Erythrocyte and a leukocyter?
erthrocyte is a red blood cell and leukocyte is white bood cells
What is Aneamia and Sickle cell aneamia?
Anemia is a decrease in the amount of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin in the peripheral blood. Sickle cell anemia is when the hemoglobin molecules are abnormal and red cells are crescentic/sickle shaped and tend to rupture.
What is Thalassemia?
defect in hemoglobin formation, occurs in people who live near the mediterranean Sea, Italian, greek sicilian
What are the common diseases of the White Blood Cells?
leukemia,lymphoma, infectious mononucleosis
What are some radiologic signs of Leukemia
transverse radiolucent bands at the metaphyseal ends of the long bones, most common with the knee, ankles,and writsts. some patchy moth-eaten appearances occur
What are the non skeletal radiographic representations for Leukemia adn Lymphoma?
lymphoma=mediastinal lymph node enlargement
What is an example of a platelet disorder?
Purpura, aka. thrombocytopenia
What are the 4 primary glands?
pituitary, adrenal, thyroid and parathyroid glands.
What diseases is/are related to the adrenal glands?
Cushings syndrome, hypoadrenalism,
What diseasees is/are related to the pituitary gland?
What diseases is /are related to the thyroid gland?
What is also known as Retarded bone age?
What is a test that is commonly used for Thyroid Gland Disease?
Radioactive iodine scanning
What is the difference between Hyperparathyroidism and Hypoparathroidism?
Hyperparathyroidism= results form the excessive production of the thyroid hormone, more common in females
Hypoparathyroidism= results form any structural or functional abnormality that leads to an insufficent synthesis of thyroid hormone.
What are the 2 forms of Diabetes mellitus?
insulin dependent and non-insulin dependent
What is known as the "Master Gland"?
What is the difference between hyperpituitarism and Hypopituitarism?
hyperpituitarism=excess of growth hormone, results in gigantism and acromegaly, results in thickening of the heel pads and bones of the skull thickened
hypopituitarism=decreased function of the pituitary gland causing dwarfisim
What disease would cause Thick Bony Tufts?
Who is more likely to develop Grave's disease?
is more likely to develop in third and forth decades and more in woman, (form of hyperthyroidism)
What are some radiographic appearances of Diabetes?