World Civilizations

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World Civilizations
2010-10-12 15:20:39

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  1. Philip II of Macedonia
    conquers Greek mainland in 338 B.C.
  2. Alexander the Great
    • son of Philip II
    • takes over at 21 years old
    • Establishes a huge "empire"(from Greece to India)
    • Began the spread of Hellenization
    • Conquered Middle East
  3. Jewish Controversies Related to Growing Hellenization
    • Greek Religious Temples Constructed
    • Desire to wipe out "obnoxious and intolerant" Jewish Monotheism
    • Erects an Image of Zeus in Jewish Temple & Sacrifices a pig on Temple altar
  4. Hellenistic Influence in Egypt
    • Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible (disputed) into Greek
    • Cult of Isis/Osiris-resurrection/immortality
  5. Founding Myth of Rome
    • Mythical founding of the City of rome by brother Romulus/Remus
    • Locals were "Latin Speaking, faming people"/"City of 7 Hills"
  6. Etruscans
    • conquer Latius (central Italy)
    • From Gaul (Celtic Origins?)
    • build roads, especially in Rome
    • Stern Monarchy
    • Eventually overthrown
  7. Republic of Rome
    • In theory, a representative government with democracy, oligarchy, etc
    • Two main classes: Patricians and Plebians
    • Eventually developed a govermental structure
  8. Consuls and Praetors
    • Consuls-administered government, food, military
    • Praetors(multiple)-enforce civil laws; rule in absence of consuls
  9. Roman Senate
    Patricians only; for life; very powerful
  10. Plebians
    • aka Plebs
    • middle to lower class citizens (majority)
  11. Patricians
    noble birth; educated; cultured; property (minority)
  12. Punic Wars
    • 1st Punic War: Rome takes Sicily form Carthage(Italian ethnicity)
    • 2nd Punic War: Punic General Hannibal goes north/around to cross Alps with army and elephants...Destroys much but eventually repelled...Roman genearl Scipio Africanus invaded/defeated Carthage
  13. Overall Outcome of the Punic Wars
    • Hannibal commits suicide
    • Rome gets Sardinia, Spain, North Africa
  14. Roman Slavery
    • Usually captives in battle or piracy
    • Sometimes, a citizen in huge debt could sell oneself into slavery
    • Frequent manumission (freeing) after set term, exemplary work
    • Variety of treatment(kind to cruel)
    • Variety of Crimes committed: execution by crucifixion
    • Wealthy had many slaves
  15. Roman Classical Literary Tradition
    • Cicero: rhetoric
    • Virgil: Aeneid; Roman "glory"
    • Horace: Social critic
    • Ovid: frivolity; silly ormance; sarcasm
    • Seneca: Stoic virtues
  16. Equestrians
    • A rising "new money" social class
    • Wealth from trade/imports
    • Want more input in government (growing internal tension)
  17. Roman Public Religion vs. "Mystery" Religions
    • Public Religion: local spirits; Greek gods "Romanized;" temples, special preists("pontiffs"); proper ritual vital; but also Mystery Cults
    • Mystery Religion: often mixed/blended aspects of various religions; small/tight-knit/secretive/special "knowledge"/special rituals; often provide promise of immortality/eternal life; more personally exciting/meaningful to the individual
  18. Julius Caesar
    • Part of the "First Triumvirate" (didn't work)
    • Each general had big egos/power ambitions
    • Eventually rebelled against each other
    • Fought for Rome
    • Declares himself as Dictator
    • Assassinated by Rival Senators
  19. Octavian (Augustus)
    • Biological heir to the throne
    • He and Antony(close adviser to J.Caesar) began a civil war...Octavian Won.
    • Becomes Sole Emperor and takes title as Caesar Augustus
    • Invested Huge sums of money(including personal wealth) into military
    • Worked to keep happy the various clsses in society
  20. Pax Romana and the Roman Empire
    • Peace of Rome (31BC-14AD)
    • End of roman internal civil wars
    • Expanded empire enormously through battle-but peace at "home"
    • Enormous expansion of road projects throughout empire
  21. Jesus and Early Christianity
    • Jesus? uh-huh...
    • EC: Term "Christians" first used for church at Antioch
    • Paul had a huge influence on shaping early Chrsitian Theology
    • Read over it in NOTES
  22. Diocletian
    • Lead the most widespread, vicious persecution of Chrisitanity
    • Go after Church leaders, burn scripture, force sacrifices to gods, emperor; spies/moles
  23. Constantine
    • General in Gaul, Britain, Spain
    • Was a worshipper of Sol Invictus(sun-god), but mother was a Christian
    • Makes a deal: If victory over Wager, then chrisitanity it is. He wins.
    • Christianity now tolerated.
    • His christianity was questioned? Still ruthless behavior
  24. High Points of Reign: Constantine
    • Moves imperial capital to Byzantium (Constantinople)
    • Decrees Sunday as Christian "holy day"(shops close)
    • Builds rooyal churches
    • Favors Chirsitans in his court of influence/power
  25. Theodosius I
    Chrisitanity as Official Religion of Empire
  26. Monasticism
    • Disappointed/disillusioned Christians after the rise of Constantine
    • Wanted a earlier "purity" of authentic Christianity
    • Fasting, isolation, extreme self-denial
  27. Christian Missions in converting "pagan" Europe
    • Effective stragety: convert tribal chief/king
    • Patriotic duty to follow the religion of one's leader
    • Big conversion: Remigius converts clovis; all troops baptized
  28. Problems of the Quick Religion Conversians of the Pagans
    • Little Doctrinal Understanding
    • Much of paganism remained engraned
    • Will take generation to work through
  29. Rise/Spread of Islam
    • Emergence of Muhammad:
    • Claims to receive prophetic visions
    • Later collected/collated into Qu'ran
    • Claims to be the final prophet
    • Simple Monotheism (Allah)
    • Five pillars of Islam
    • Within 100 yrs., Islam spreading via conquest to Palesting, North Africa, W. Europe
  30. Islam=?
    • Islam: to submit
    • Muslim: one who submits