Bio Exam 2

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jax12
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41488
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Bio Exam 2
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2010-10-11 19:55:22
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Bio Exam
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Bio Exam 2
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  1. belief of creation of organisms before Darwin
    -created simultaneously and were unchanging
  2. Cuvier
    - proposed that all species were created by God at once, but a series of catastrophies killed species off and made rocks and fossils
  3. Louis Agassiz
    thought God followed the catastrophes with new creations
  4. George LeClerc
    suggested God created a few species in the beginning that were "conceived by Nature and modified by Time"
  5. geologist began to think the world was old in the..
    how old...
    • 1800's
    • 4.5 billion yrs
  6. Jean Baptiste Lamarck
    • noticed older fossils were simpler than younger ones
    • hypothesized inheritance of acquired characteristics
  7. Alfred Russel Wallace
    • traveler
    • familiar with fossils
    • aware of ancient age of earth
    • wanted to explain how species change over time
    • proposed Natural Selection as driving force of evolution separate from Darwin
  8. natural selection
    • variability within each species
    • some variability is inherited
    • fittest organisms leave the most offspring
  9. evolution
    the genetic make up of a population changes over time, driven by natural selection
  10. mutation
    can be a normal gene that activates early and turns off late
  11. example of evolution that can kill
    rapid spread of antibiotic resistances
  12. evolution only refers to ...
    populations. individuals cannot evolve
  13. evidence for evolution
    • fossils
    • comparative anatomy
    • embryology
    • biochemistry
    • genetics
  14. whales and wolves related because of...
    a bone found in pakistand resembling a wolf skull
  15. Valley of the Whales
    • in the Sahara Desert, Africa
    • limestone
    • used to covered by the Med Sea
  16. Cambrian explosion
    • 500 million years ago animals appear on the earth - large populations and competition
    • huge radiation of new switches for toolkit proteins to work on
  17. homology
    similarity in bone structure across species
  18. atavistic mutations
    • tails on people
    • extension of spine
  19. evidence of common ancestry
    same body structure modified by evolution to serve diff functions - wings vs arms

    homologous bone structure
  20. vestigial structures
    structures in modern organisms that serve no purpose
  21. examples of vestigial structures
    • molar teeth in bats
    • pelvic bones in snakes
  22. all cells have:
    • DNA
    • RNA
    • ribosomes
    • 20 amino acids
    • ATP as an energy carrier
  23. artificial selection
    breeding plants (plant husbandry) or animals (animal husbandry) to have desireable characteristics
  24. present day evolution
    • antibiotic resistances
    • natural settings - presence of predators or not
    • pesticide resistance in insects
  25. evo devo
    • evolutionary development
    • how bodies are built
  26. homeotic mutation
    correct structure in the wrong place
  27. polydactyl
    change one gene and grow extra digits
  28. antennapedia
    a leg instead of an antenna on the head of a fly
  29. difference between a head and a tail
    • head genes are expressed in the head
    • tail genes expressed in the tail
    • but all cells have head and tail in them
  30. toolkit proteins
    map the embryo
  31. map making and switching requires...
    • the cells know where they are
    • toolkit proteins

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