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“Error is easy and correctness hard; since it is easy to miss the
target and hard to hit it… we are noble in only one way, but bad in all sorts of ways.”
Aristotle = Not everything has a mean (cheating)
"... in the case of what is to be morally good, that it conforms to the moral law is not enough; it must also be done for the sake of the moral law. otherwise that conformity is only very contingent and uncertain."
Kant deontology. Only trust REASON.. Rational nature exists and ends in itself.
" love as an inclination cannot be commanded; but beneficence, is practical, and not pathological love. Such love resides in the will"
Kants 1st proposition= Acts must be done for the sense of Duty and not Moral worth.
"If we weighed up everything from one and the same standpoint, namely, that of reason we would find a contradiction i our own will, viz., that a certain principle by objectively necessary as a universal law and yet subjectively not hold universally."
- Kants categorical imperative
- Hypothetical (conditional) vs. Categorical (inconditional)
IMPERATIVES- GOD should = would
Fo us the ought should imply can!
"act only according to the maxim whereby you can at the same time ill that it should be a universal law"
KANT 1st proposition
- 1. suicide
- 2. promise $
- 3. talent wasted
- 4. ungracious man
Imperfect: can be done, but can't be willed
"act in such way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of another, always at the same time as an end and never simply as a means."
KANT 2nd Proposition
Humanity as an end itself
" i should never act except in such a way that i can also will that my maxim should become a universal law"
KANT 3rd formulation ( I am legislator of law)
Lying " i can indeed will the lie but can not at all will a universal law to lie. For by such a law there would really be no promises at all... my maxim would be necessarily destroy itself just as soon as it was made by universal law."
" every other motive must give way because duty is the condition of a will good in itself, whose worth is above all else."
" a rational being must always regard himself as legislator in a kingdom of ends rendered possible by freedom of the will whether as member of sovereign."
KANT 4th formulation
everything either has a price or dignity (intrinsic worth)
Autonomy is the ground of the dignity of human nature and of every rational nature.
" the creed which accepts as the foundation of moral, Utility, or the Greatest happiness principle (happiness for the greatest number), holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. By happiness is intended pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain, and the privation of pleasure."
MILL the Utilitarianism Principle
Schools educate you.. get more money.. buy stuff.. well being.. happiness
"Pushpin is as good as poety"
What ever makes you happy
" there is known Epicurean theory of life which does not assign to the pleasure of intellect of the feeling and imagination and the moral sentiments, a much higher value as pleasure than those of mere sensation."
High pleasures vs. Low pleasures
Prevent unhappiness by ridding self of desires (avoid pain)
Stoicism = train self to be satisfied