histo/embryo after midterm

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histo/embryo after midterm
2010-10-28 23:10:58
digestive respiratory system histo

digestive system - oral, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestine, salivary gland, liver pancreas
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  1. Lips
    • covered externally by integument and internally by mucosa
    • mucosa - keratinized in ruminants and horses, non in carnivores and pigs
    • labial glands - serous or seromucous in propria-submucosa
    • tunica muscularis - skeletal muscle fibers of ocbricularis oris muscle
    • internal - not always keratinized
    • external - always keratinized
  2. cheeks
    • outer - skin
    • middle - muscular layer (buccinator muscle)
    • internal - mucosa (stratified squamous, maybe keratinized) conical buccal papillae - cattle
    • buccal glands are located in the propria-submucosa and maybe serous. mucous, or seromucous
  3. conical buccal papillae
    mucosa of cheeks is studded in Ruminants called conical buccal papillae
  4. hard pallate
    • rugae- transvers ridges
    • stratified squamous keratinized
    • proprial-submucosa - dense network of caps, collagen, and reticular fibers
    • palatine glands are mucous or seromucous and loacted mainly in the caudal part of the hard palate
  5. ruminant hard palate dental pad
    • dental pad
    • heavily keratinized stratified squamous (thick!)
    • dense layer of irregular CT
  6. Cattle hard palate parts
    • dental pad
    • buccal papillae
    • palatine raphe
    • rugae
  7. Soft palate
    • stratified squamous
    • propria-submucosa containes branched, tubuloacinar, mucous, or seromucous, palatine glands, and lymphatic tissues
    • palatine muscles - skeletal muscle fibers oriented longitudinally
  8. tongue functions
    • eating, drinking, vocalization
    • muscular and mobile
    • epithelial specializations
    • sensitive and highly innervated
    • contains chemoreceptor cites
  9. tongue structure
    • muscular organ covered by mucosa
    • ventral surface - nonkeratinized
    • dorsal surface - keratinized
    • mucosa - abundant in caps, arteriovenous anastomoses
    • intrinsic lingual muscles - bundles of skeletal muscle (longitudinal, transvers, and perpendicular)
    • Lingual glands - seromucosa, scattered between muscle fibers
  10. lingual papillae
    • dorsal surface of tongue - marcroscopic lingual papillae
    • mechanical function - filiform, conical, lenticular
    • gustatory function - fungiform, vallate, foliate
  11. mechanical lingual papillae
    • filiform, conical, and lenticular
    • facilitate movement of ingesta
  12. Filiform Papillae
    • slender, thread like
    • keratinized stratified squamous epitheliumhighly vascularized CT corewell developed in cats and ruminants
    • horse - fine keratinized threads
  13. Conical Lingual Papillae
    • larger than filiform, not as keratinized
    • torus linguae - cow
    • root of tongue - dog, cat, pig
    • pigs - contain a core of lymphatic tissue
  14. Lenticular Papillae
    • flattened, lens - shaped projection
    • Torus linguae
    • covered by a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
    • core of dense irregular CT
  15. gustatory lingual papillae
    • fungiform, vallate, and foliate
    • contain taste buds
  16. Fungiform Papillae
    • mushroom-shaped, covered in non-keratinized, taste buds on upper surface
    • taste buds - sparse in horse and cattle
    • medium in sheep and pigs
    • most in carnivores and goats
    • CT core is rich in blood vessels and nerves
  17. Vallate Papillae
    • Large and flattened, completely surrounded by epithelium lined sulcus
    • extend slightly above the lingual surface and are covered by nonkeratinized
    • numerous taste buds in epithelium on the papillary side of the sulcus
    • serous gustatory glands deep to the sulcus and dicts open into the sulcus at various level
  18. Foliate Papillae
    • parallel folds of lingual mucosa located on the caudo-lateral margin of tongue
    • nonkeratinized w/ taste buds on sides of the folds
    • absent in ruminants
    • rudimentary and w/o tastebuds in cats
  19. Taste bud
    • cluster of spindle-shaped epithelial cells that extend from thw basement membrane to a small opening, taste bud pore, at the epithelial surface
    • cells - sustentacular(supportive), gustatory(taste receptor), basal cells
    • non-myelinated afferent nerve fibers(taste receptors are closely associated with gustatory cells
  20. Special lingual structures
    • lyssa - carnivores
    • torus lingue - ruminant
    • dorsal lingual cartilage - horse
  21. Lyssa
    • cordlike structure
    • composed of white adipose tissue
    • skeletal muscle
    • blood vessels
    • nerves
    • enclosed by dense irregular CT capsule
  22. Torus Lingue
    • large prominence on the caudal part of the dorsal surface of the tongue
  23. Dorsal Lingual Cartilage
    • HORSE
    • mid-dorsal fibroelastic cord w/ hyaline cartilage, skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue
    • Present inside tongue
  24. Teeth
    • mineralized outer part - enamel, dentine, cementum
    • pulp cavity - contains dental pulp, core of connective tissue, blood vessels and nerves
  25. Enamel
    • hardest substance in body
    • 99 % in orgainic mineral (hydroxyapatite)
    • 1 % organic matter
    • produced by ameloblasts
    • composed of long slinder rods, enamel prisms, held together by interrod enamel
  26. Dentine
    • 70% minerals, mainly hydroxyapatite, carbonate, magnesium and fluoride
    • 30% organic, collagen fibers and glycoprotein
    • preoduced by odontoblasts
  27. Cementum
    • like bone
    • lamellae oriented parallel to surface, cementoytes in lacuna
    • Sharpey's - bundles of collagen fibers, extend from alveoloar bone into cementum of the tooth, fibers form peridontal ligament to anchor tooth to alveolus
  28. Types of teeth
    • Brachydont
    • Hypsodont
  29. Brachydont teeth
    • short and cease to grow after eruption is complete
    • crown(enamel), neck, and root(cementum)
    • thick dentine under cementum
  30. Which animals have Brachydont teeth
    • carnivores
    • ruminants - incisors
  31. Hypsodont Teeth
    • longer and continue to grow
    • no crown of neck
    • cementum and enamel over whole tooth
    • enamel on thick layer of dentin
    • Infundibulum - enamel invagination
  32. Which animals have Hypsodont teeth
    • ruminants - cheek teeth
    • horses - permanent teeth
    • pigs - canine teeth
  33. Major Salivary Glands
    • Parotid
    • Mandibular
    • Sublingual
    • Zygomatic (carnivores)
  34. Parotid Salivary gland
    • serous glands
    • occasional mucous in dog or cat
    • compund acinar - pyramid shaped cells, basal nucleus surrounded by basophilic cytoplasm, apex filled with zymogen granules
    • myoepithelial cells between secretory cells and basement membrane
  35. Parotid - Duct system
    • intercalated duct - lined by low cuboidal epi
    • striated duct - simple colmunar w/ striations in basal portion of cell from mito arragned perpendicularly in the deep infolding of basal cell membrane
    • Interlobar duct - simple columnar, as ducts get bigger and fuse with other draining ducts changes to stratified columnar
  36. Mandibular Salivary Gland
    • seromucous
    • compund tubuloacinar
    • perdominance of mucous acini and serous deliume
    • serous demilune - periphery, secrete through intercellular canaliculi
    • occasional separate serous units
    • similar duct sytem to parotid
  37. Mandibular gland - mucous secretory unit
    • cells filled with mucinogen (mucous precursors) light stain
    • nuclei displaced towards the basal part of cells and flattened
  38. Sublingual Salivary gland
    • seromucous, compound tubuloacinar gland
    • cattle, sheep, pigs - entirely mucous w/ few serous demilune, well developed straited ducts and intercalated ducts
    • dog, cat - clusters of serous acini w/ mucous and serous deilunes, not prominent straited and intercalated ducts
    • main duct - stratified cuboidal
  39. Zygomatic Salivary gland
    • long branched
    • tubuloacinar secretory units
    • predominantly mucous w/ small flattened serous demilune
    • no intercalated and striated ducts
    • carnivores
  40. Lingual glands
    • inbetween muscles
    • serous and mucous
    • keep tongue moist
  41. Minor Salivary glands
    • Labial
    • lingual
    • buccal
    • palatine
    • Molar (cats)
  42. Molar salivary gland
    • cats
    • similar to zygomatic
    • located near commissure of lips and ducts open into oral vestibule opposite to molar teeth
  43. General structure of Tubular organs
    • Tunica mucosa (lumen)- Epi, Lamina propria(loose CT), Lamina muscularis (aka muscularis mucosal)
    • Tunica submucosa - CT, glands, vessels, Meisser's plexus(submucosal)
    • Tunica muscularis - smooth or skeletal muscles and Auribach's plexus(myenteric)
    • Tunica serosa/adventitia (outer most layer)
  44. Tunica = main
  45. Esophagus - Tunica mucosa
    • stratified squamous
    • non - dog
    • slight - pig and horse
    • keratinized - ruminants
    • Lamina propria - dense network of collagen, elastic fibers and loose CT
    • Lamina muscularis - longitudinal smooth muscle bundles
  46. Esophagus - Tunica Submucosa
    • Loose CT w/ vessels and nerves
    • seromucous glands -
    • dog - whole length
    • pig - cranial half of esophagus
    • horse, cat and ruminants - pharyngoesohageal junction
  47. Esophagus - Tunica Muscularis
    • inner circular and outer longitudinal layer of muscle
    • cardia (thicker inner circular layer) forms cardiac sphincter
    • dog - entirely striated
    • cat - skeletal may extend 4/5 of length before change to smooth
    • Horses - promient cardiac sphincter, skeletal muscle cranial 2/3, gradually changes to smooth
  48. Esophagus - Tunica Adventitia, Serosa
    • Tunica adventitia - cervical region
    • tunica serosa - thoracic and abdominal region
    • loose CT. vessels and nerves
  49. Stomach
    • has all typical layers
    • types -
    • simple - horse, pig, carnivores
    • compound - ruminants - rumen, reticulum, omasum and glandular abomasum
  50. Non glandular region
    • absent in carnivoers and small pigs
    • horse - separated from glandular region by Margoplicatus
    • ruminant - nonglandular region most developed
    • stratified squamous and may be keratinized
  51. % of glandular and non glandular stomach
    • 80 % cow is non glandular
    • 25-35 % non glandular - horse
    • cardiac glands most prominent in pigs
  52. Rumen
    • Mucosa - tongue shaped papillae - core of collagen, recticular and elastic fibers, keratinized, fenestrated caps
    • Lamina muscularis - absent
    • tunica muscularis - inner circular layer and outer longitudinal layer of smooth m.
    • tunica serosa - loose CT, covered by mesothelium, fat, vessels and nerves
  53. Reticulum
    • mucosa - reticular folds (honey comb) vertical ridges, conical papillae between folds
    • Keratinized
    • Propria-submuscularis - collagen and elastic fibers
    • laminar muscularis - smooth m pouch in upper part of reticular folds
    • tunica muscularis - 2 layers of smooth m. fibers in oblique order and cross at right angles
    • tunica serosa - (like rumen)loose CT, covered by mesothelium, fat, vessels and nerves
  54. Reticular Groove
    • extends from cardia to reticulo-omasal orifice
    • boredered by 2 thick folds (labia "lips")
    • young animal - smooth m layers of the labia contract reflexly during sucking, creates channel to bypass rumen and reticulum
  55. Omasum
    • mucosa - omasal laminae "leaves" studded with macroscopic papillae to help grinde and squeeze food
    • keratinized
    • lamina propria - dense subepithelia capillar network (no glands)
    • lamina muscularis - thick layer beneath the lamina propria on both sides of lamina
    • submucosa - thin
    • tunica muscularis - thin, longitudinal layer and a thicker inner circular layer of smooth m., innermost layer is continued into the omasal laminae as intermediate muscle sheet
  56. Glandular region
    • cardiac, fundic, and pyloris regions
    • mucosa - gastric folds (flatten when stomach is filling)
    • gastric pits that are continuous with the gastric glands
    • gastric glands densely packed w/in the lamina propria
    • lamina muscularis is thick
    • branched straight tubular
    • Ruminant - Abomasum
  57. Cardiac Gland Region
    • pigs - most developed
    • glands - short, simple branched,
    • coiled tubular to release mucous,
    • cuboidal,
    • nuclei on basal portion,
    • empty into shallow gastric pits
  58. Fundic Glandular Region
    • 4 cells - mucous neck, chief, parietal, endocrine
    • Glands - straight, branched tubular that extend into lamina muscularis
    • short neck, long body, slightly dilated blind end
  59. Mucous neck cells - in Fundic region
    • in neck of gland
    • mucous cells - flat nucleus towards base of cell
    • appear similar to surface cells but have more basophilic cytoplasm
  60. Chief Cells (Zymogen cells) - in Fundic region
    • most numerous
    • cuboidal or pyramidal w/ spherical nucleus near base of cell
    • basal area lots of RER = basophilic staining
    • apical area - vacuoles of zymogen granules which dissolve when fixed as a slide
    • secrete pepsinogen - trasformed to pepsin by HCl
  61. Parietal Cells - in Fundic region
    • larger and less numerous
    • occur singly
    • spherical nucleus
    • cytoplasm stains w/ eosin and has glandular appearance b/c of numerous mito
    • abundance of carbonic anhydrase to help form HCl
  62. Endocrine Cells - in Fundic region
    • produce GI hormones - gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin and gastric inhibitory polypsptide
    • wedged between basement membrane and chief cells
    • products released directly into capillaries
    • hard to see
  63. Pyloric Gland Region
    • glands - branched, coild tubular, shorter than gastric glands
    • gastric pits with flat nuclei at base of the cell and lightly stain apical cytoplasm
    • mucous - flat nuclei at base of cell and stain lightly
    • middle - circular layer of tunica muscularis forms pyloric sphincter
  64. Other Layers of the Stomach
    • Lamina muscularis - fibers irregularly interwoven smooth m. helps in emptying into glands
    • tunica muscularis - loose CT, elastic fibers, vessels and nerves
    • tunica muscularis - inner oblique, middle cirular, and outer longitudinal layer (3 layers)
    • tunica serosa - loose CT with numerous adipose cells
  65. Small Intestine
    • Mucosal folds
    • Tunical muscularis
    • Crypts of Lieberkuhn (intestinal glands)
    • Lamina Propria
    • Lamina Muscularis
    • Tunica Submucosa
    • Tunica Muscularis and Serosa
  66. Small Intestine
    • digestive and absorptive functions
    • Mucosal folds - (plicae circulares) in the cranial 2/3
    • mucosa - villi
    • absorptive surface - microvilli on free surface of simple columnar
  67. SI - Tuncia Mucosa
    • simple columnar w/ numerous goblet cells
    • less goblet cells at the tip of the villi
    • ileum - greater number of goblet cells
    • columnar cells have prominent microvilli to form striated border
    • apical cytoplasm - lots of SER(syn of triglycerides)
    • golgi coplex (digestive enzymes)
    • Basal cytoplasm - lots of RER and free ribosomes (digestive enzymes synthesis)
  68. Crypt of Lieberkuhn (intestinal glands)
    • base of villi, simple branched tubular invaginations
    • low columnar cells - multiply and migrate onto the villus, give rise to columnar and goblet cells
    • Paneth cells - at base in ruminants and horses, pyramid shaped w/ acidophilis granules, produce peptidase and lysozyme (antibacteria compound)
    • Enteroendocrine cells (argentaffin) - present in intestinal gland
  69. SI - Lamina Propria
    • core of villi and surrounds intestinal glands
    • loose CT w/ reticular network, blood vessels, fibroblast, smooth m, plasma cells, and mast cells
    • lymphatic nodules - throughout SI, increase in number towards the ileum
    • Lacteal - single lymphatic capillary, center of villun, origin of lymph vessel to form a plexus at the base of the villus
  70. SI - Lamina Muscularis
    • thin and incomplete except on dog (thicker and complete)
    • longitudinally oriented smooth muscel fibers derived from lamina muscularis and extend to tip of villi - movement of blood and lymp
  71. SI - Tunica Submucosa
    • CT denser than lamina propria
    • Brunner's gland - tubuloalveolar submucosal glands , mainly in duodenum,
    • mucous - dogs and ruminants
    • serous - pigs and horses
    • mixed - cats
    • Peyer's patches - large aggreagted lymphatic nodules, mainly present in the ileum, solitary lymph nodules throughout SI
    • vessels and nerves are prominent
  72. SI - Tunica muscularis and serosa
    • inner circular layer and outer longitudinal smooth m.
    • CT between the layers contains myenteric plexus
    • thickest in horses
    • Serosa - layer of loose CT covered by mesothelium
  73. Differences
    • Duodenum - brunners glands (submucosa)
    • jejunum - crypts of lieberkuhn
    • ilieum - peyers patches (submucosa)
  74. Large Intestine
    • microbial action on the ingesta, absorption(H2O) and secretion of mucous
    • no villi or Paneth cells
    • longer and less coiled, simlpe tubular glands
    • lots of goblet cells
    • increase in number of lymphatic nodules
    • plicae cirulares are absent
    • longitudinal folds
    • tunica submucosa - lymphatic nodules
  75. regional and Species Differences in Large Intestine
    • Cecum - lots of lymphatic nodules
    • mucosa - thickes b/c increased length of intestinal glands
    • rectum - lots of goblet cells
    • pig and horse - outer longitudinal layer of tunica muscularis form flat muscle bands containing numerous elastic fibers called Taenia
  76. Anal canal
    • Columnar zone - nonkeratinized, longitudinal folds, tubuloalveolar sweat glands
    • Intermediate zone - nonkeratinized, tubuloalveolar sweat glands
    • Cutaneus zone - keratinized
    • Pigs and carnivores
    • carnivores also have anal sacs - bilateral evaginations of ana mucosa, modified sweat glands
    • cirumanal glands - mucous
  77. digestive tube epithelieum
    • esophagus - strat squamous
    • to
    • glandular part of stomach - simple columnar
    • to
    • anal canal and anus - strat squamous
    • as gets closer to outside becomes more keratinized
  78. Liver
    • covered by CT capsule, dense irregular, divides liver into lobes
    • largest gland of body
    • high regenerative power
    • Kupffer cells - phagocytosis from monocytes
  79. Functions of the Liver
    • secret bile - for digestion of fat
    • metabolism of protein, carbs, lipid, hemoglobin, and drugs
    • hemopoiesis - in fetus
    • phagocytosis and detoxification
  80. Capsule and Stroma of Liver
    • serosa covering over thin CT capsule (Glisson's capsule)
    • Capsule exteneds into the live as interlobular CT to support parenchyma and form lobules
    • interlobular CT - prominent in areas containing branches of hepatic artery, portal vein, bile duct and lymphatics in Portal Area
    • pig - distinct interlobular CT septa
    • most species - interlobular CT is scant
  81. Concepts of Liver Lobules
    • Classic - anatomical unit of liver, plates or laminae of hepatocytes radiating from a central vein, hexagonal with portal area between lobules
    • Portal - functional unit for bile secretion, triangular, portal area in the center and three central veins of the classic lobules at peripheral angles, direct bile from cental to periphery
    • Liver acinus - functional unit for metabolic activity, diamond shaped area made of parts of the 2 classic lobules w/ 2 central veins at the opposing points
  82. Hepatocytes
    • polyhedral and have 3 surfaces
    • 1. microvillus surface tha faces the perisinusoidal space
    • 2. canalicular surface that borders the bile canaliculi
    • 3. contact surface between adjacent hepatocytes where apposed cell membranes may have gap junctions and desmosomes
    • centrally placed vesicular nucleus (occasionally binucleate) numerous mito, lyso and ribo, well developed RER and SER, and golgi complexes
    • after feeding these cells enlarge and are filled w/ numerous glycogen and lipid inclusions
  83. Bile Canaliculi
    • bile canaliculus - expanded intercellular space between membranes of adjacent hepatocytes
    • cell membranes have short microvilli bordering these spaces
    • tigh junctions adjacent to the bile canaliculi prevent bile from excaping into the narrow intercellular space
  84. Bile duct
    • smaller interlobular bile ducts
    • lined by simple cuboidal
    • larger interlobular ducts, hepatic and bile duct - simple columnar epithelium
  85. Bile Flow
    Bile canaliculi - bile ductules - interlobular bile ducts - hepatic ducts - bile ducts
  86. Blood supply to the liver (enter at Hilus)
    • Portal vein - blood from intestine
    • Hepatic artery - brings oxygen
    • interlobar branches of vessels in portal areas
    • Hepatic sinusoids - between hepatic laminae, carry blood from the terminal branches of hepatic a. and portal vein to central vein
    • lined by endothelial cells and stellate macro(Kupffer cells)
    • Perisinusoidal space - separtes endothelium and hepatocytes (villi extend into space for direct exchange of substances between blood and hepatocytes)
    • blood from sinusoids - enter central vein and drain to hepatic vein to vena cava
  87. Biliary Caliculi
    stoned in the gall bladder or in bile ducts
  88. Cholangitis
    inflammation of bile duct
  89. Fatty liver
    accumulation of fat globules in hepatocytes
  90. Cirrhosis
    • chronis inflammation with extensive fibrosis
    • degeneration and necrosis
  91. Hepatitis
    inflammation of the liver
  92. Gall Bladder
    • animals w/o - horse (continuous secretion causing greener feces), rat, deer, pigeons
    • Function - storage, concentration, acidification, and delivery of bile
    • Bile - digest fat by emulsification
  93. Structure of the Gall Bladder
    • simple columnar
    • cattle - goblet cells are present
    • propria mucosa - loose CT, lymphatic tissue, (diffuse or nodular)
    • tunica muscularis - circularly arranged smooth muscles
    • ruminants - serous or mucous glands are present in propria - submucosa
  94. Exocrin Pancrease
    • compund tubuloalveolar gland - produces amylase lipase and trypsin (enzymes)
    • similar to parotid salivary gland
    • centrocinar cells - in lumen of secretory acinus, secrete bicarbonate (rises pH of intesting contents to help w/ digestive enzymes)
    • Intralobar ducts - not striated
    • cats - lamellar (Paccinian) corpulscles
  95. Endocrine of Pancreas
    • hormones
    • islets of langerhans
    • lighter areas
    • secret insulin
  96. Avian Digestive system
    • Oral cavity
    • Esohagus
    • Crop
    • Stomach - proventriculus and ventriculus(gizzard)
    • Intestine - Small intestine, 2 ceca
    • Cloaca
  97. Avian Oral Cavity
    • beak - cornified (keratinized)
    • keratinized
    • propria submucosa - diffuse lymphatic tissue (dont have lymph nodes) & salivary glands (branched tubular)
    • no teeth
    • tongue - keratinized, entoglossal bone
  98. Avian Esophagus
    • keratinized
    • lamina propria - loose CT, diffuse lymphatic tissue, simple branched tubular mucous glands
    • lamina muscularis - longitudinal smooth m.
    • tunica submucosa - loose CT
    • tunica muscularis - inner circular and outer longitudinal layer of muscles
  99. Avian Crop
    • sac diverticulum of esophagus
    • keratinized
    • storage organ - moisten ingested food w/ mucous from esophagus and crop gland
    • while brooding - secretes crop milk(desquamated lipid-laden cells)
  100. Avian Proventriculus (stomach)
    • glandular
    • macroscopic papillae around duct openings of the glands
    • columnar cells which continue into glands as cuboidal epithelium
    • oxynticopeptic cells - produce pepsin and HCl
  101. Avian Ventriculus (gizzard) (stomach)
    • muscular part
    • grinding of ingesta
    • "koilin" lines and is a secretory product of mucosal glands
    • simple comlunar
    • mucosal glands - simple branched tubular glands
    • lamina propria and submucosa - typical
    • tunica muscularis - smooth m. criss-crossed by bands of dense white, fibrous tissue
    • sometimes there are ingested stones to help grind
    • cuticle - lined, secretory product of mucosal glands
  102. Avian Intestine - Small intestine
    • lamina propria and submucosa - large amounts of diffuse and nodular lymphatic tissue, duodenal submucosa glands are absent
    • glands in lamina propria
  103. Avian Intestine - 2 ceca
    • at ileocolic junction
    • adults - large masses of diffuse and nodular lymphatic tissue infiltrate the lamina propria and submucosa at the cecal orifice "cecal tonsils"
    • proximal part of ceca and colon contain villi
  104. Avian Cloaca
    • coprodeum, urodeum, proctodeum
    • simple columnar
    • tunica mucosa - folded extensively, causes compartmentalization of this structure
    • lymphatic tissue is associated with CT
    • tunica mucosa of vent - highly folded, keratinized, straited muscle forms spincter, no lamina muscularis mucosa
    • proctodeum - diverticulum cloacal bursa lymphoid organ
  105. Coprodeum
    • continuation of digestive system
    • Holds feces
  106. Urodeum
    • for urin from ureter
    • ureteric orifice
    • oviduct orific
  107. Respiratory system
    • nasal cavity, naspopharynx, larynx, trachea and lungs
    • air conducting and gas exchange regions
  108. Functions of respiratory system
    • Gas exchange - most important, acid-base balance
    • Cooling - evaporate water loss (important in bird) control of water loss
    • Chemoreceptors
    • Vocalization
  109. Nasal cavity - 3 regions
    • cutaneous
    • respiratory
    • olfactory
  110. Cutaneous region - Nasal cavity
    • nasal vestibule - rostally, keratinized
    • mid vestible - non, thinner
    • caudal - trasitional zone, stratified cuboidal or nonciliated psuedostratified
    • propria submucosa - vessels, nerves, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macro
    • Horse - Nasal Diverticulum, integmuent w/ hairs, sebaceous glands and sweat glands, no function, "false nostril"
  111. Respiratory region - Nasal cavity
    • caudal 2/3
    • ciliated pseudostratified columnar - 4 types of cells
    • propria- submucosa - highly vascular (cavernous stratum), contains serous or mixed nasal glands, numberous nerves and lymph nodules
  112. respiratory region - 4 types of cells
    • ciliated - motile cilia or numerous micorvilli, trap things
    • secretory cells - serous or mucous (goblet cells)
    • brush cells - thick microvilli associated w/ sensory receptors
    • basal cells
  113. Olfactory region - Nasal cavity
    • dorsocaudal protion - ethmoidal labyinth
    • ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium - 3 types of cells
    • mixed olfactory glands - in propria-submucosa
  114. Olfactory region - 3 types of cells
    • Neurosensory - bipolar cells (neurons) dendrites extend to lumen and axons reach olfactory bulb of brain
    • Sustentacular - columnar cells
    • Basal Cells
  115. Vomeronasal organ
    • paired duct - base of nasal septum, opens inot incisive duct
    • crescent shape - medial concave and lateral convex mucosa
    • Medial - peudostratified columnar has neurosensory, sustentacular and basal cells
    • Lateral - pseudostratified columnar has non-ciliated columnar, goblet and basal cells
    • propria submucosa - vomeronasal glands (mucous or mixed) and vomernasal cartilage (hyaline) enclosing organ
    • detects pheromones
  116. Nasopharynx
    • pseudostratified ciliated columnar w/ goblet cells
    • proprial-submucosa - loose CT containing glands
    • lymphatic nodules prominent in dorsal portion - pharyngeal tonsil
  117. Larynx
    • non - caudal to voal fold and changes to typical epi
    • epiglottis - epi may contain taste buds
    • propria-submucosa - dense irregular CT changes to loose CT, elastic fibers, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and mast cells, diffuse lymphatic tissue or solitary lymphatic nodules, mixed glands in caudal portion
    • Hyaline - thyroid and cricoid cartilage
    • Elastic carilage - arytenoid cartilage
  118. Trachea
    • pseudostratified ciliated columnar w/ goblet
    • neuroendocrine cells - at nerve terminals, pyramid shape, abundant in young animals
    • migratory cells - lymphocytes, globular leucocytes, and mast cells
    • propria- submucosa - loose CT, cubepithelial layer of longitudinal elastic fibers, tubuloacinar seromucous gland
    • Hyaline catilage rings - dorsal free ends of cartlage bridged by smooth m. (external-carnivores, internal-other domestic animals)
    • external perichondrium - loose Ct, Adventitia
  119. Lungs
    • visceral of pulmonary pleura
    • pleura - simple squamous, layer of CT that is continuous with interalveolar septa
    • ruminats - thickest, one side can colapse and the other will be fine
    • dog and cat - thinnest, both sides of lung will colpase if one side is punctured
    • intrapulmonary conducting airways - bronchioles and bronchi
    • Gas exchanges area - respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs and alveoli
  120. Bronchi
    • subdivided into primary, lobar and segmental
    • pseudostratified w/ goblet, proximodistally, epi height and number of goblet cells decrease, Clara cells increase in number (exocrine glands)
    • propria-submucosa - loose C with submucosal glands (decrease distally)
    • hyaline cartilage - irregular plates with smooth m. inbetween, proximodistally cartilage decrease, smooth m. increases
    • tunica adventitia - loose CT, collagen and elastic fibers
  121. Bronchioles
    • branch repeatedly then terminate as terminal bronchioles
    • simple columnar or cuboidal with cilia and Clara cells (exocrine cells)
    • propria submucosa - cartilage and glands (abscent), sparse loose CT, circular smooth m. w/ nerve fibers between muscles
    • tunica adventitia - loose CT w/ elastic fibers oriented circularly
  122. Gas Exchange
    • respiratory bronchioles
    • alveolar ducts and alveolar sacs
    • alveoli
  123. Resporitory bronchioles
    • Transition zone - where mos lung disorders occur
    • epithelium is interrupted by alveoli, with smooth m. beneath
    • carnivores - respiratory bronchioles are extensive
    • horse, cow and pig - short or abscent
  124. Alveolar sacs and ducts
    • arise from respiratory bronshiole and terminates in clusters of alveoli (alveolar sacs)
    • simples cuboidal(upper) or squamous(lower)
    • subepithelial CT - smooth m. cells and very few elastic fibers
  125. Alveoli
    • Type I - 95%, squamous epi cell with central nucleus, anchored to a continuous basal lamina (pneumocyte - oval nucleus)
    • Type II - 5% granular alveolar cell, cuboidal with microvilli that produces pulmonary surfactants (pneumocytes - round nucleus)
    • Macrophages - in alveolar lumes, "dust cell" has vaculoes
    • interalvolar CT - capillary plexus, fibrocytes, pericytes, lymphocytes and plasma cells, collagen and elastic fibers
  126. Air - Blood Barrier
    • 1. pneumocyte I
    • 2. basal lamina of I and of capillary endothelial cells separated by sparse CT, lamina maybe fused
    • 3. capillary endothelial cell (simple squamous)
    • 4. plasmalemma of red blood cell
  127. Avian respiratory (NO LARYNX)
    • nasal cavity
    • trachea
    • syrinx
    • lungs - primary, hyaline cartilage, secondary, parabronchi (small, dont change volume w/ respiration)
    • Air sacs - 8 (no gas exhange)
    • Avians - no lymph nodes!!!!!!
  128. Nasal cavity - Avian
    • stratified squamous - rostally
    • olfactory epi - dorsocaudally
    • respiratory epi - lining most of remaining areas
  129. Trachea - Avian
    • similar to mammals
    • complete circles of cartilaginous rings
    • intraepithelial glands are numberous
  130. Syrinx - Avian
    • junction of trachea and bronchi
    • inverted Y shape
    • Tympanic membranes- vibrate to produce sounds, stratified sqamous
  131. Lungs (primary bronchi)- Avian
    • pseudostratified ciliated columnar w/ goblet cells and intraepithelial mucous glands
    • lamina propria - CT with diffuse and aggregated lymphatci tissue
    • lamina muscularis - circularly or spirally oriented mass of muscle with some longitudinal bundles
  132. Lungs (hyaline cartilage rings) - Avian
    • in initial portion of bronchi
    • replaced by plaques of cartilage
  133. Lungs (Secondary bronchi) - Avian
    • simple columnar or cuboidal
    • no goblet cells, or cartilage
    • lamina propria - areolar CT, no lymphatic tissue
    • Lamina muscularis - interrupted and multidirectionally oriented
  134. Lung (parabronchi) - Avian
    • cuboidal epithelium
    • numerous extensions (atria) in lumen give rise to aor capillaries
    • atria - lined by simple squamous or cuboidal
    • air capillaries - simples squamous, similar to mammal blood capillaries
  135. Air Sacs - Avian
    • most birds have eight
    • unpaired cervical
    • unpaired clavicular
    • paired cranial thoracic
    • paired cuadal thoracic
    • paired abdominal air sacs
    • simple squamous of cuboidal
    • no gas exchange
    • poor vascularised
    • help with flying
  136. Function of Kidney
    • regulation of volume and compostition of body fluid
    • filtration of blood
    • removal of metabolic wast
    • reabsorption of useful metabolites (99%)
    • secretion of renin - regulates blood pressure
    • production of Hemopoietin (regulate production of RBC)
  137. General Organization of Kidney
    • embedded in fat, CT capsule and may have smooth m
    • parenchyma - outer cotex, inner medulla
    • Multilobar or Multipyramidal - bovine(external lobules, 20-22) and pig(internal lobules)
    • Unilobar or unipyramidal - cat, dog, horses, sheep, goat
    • Hilus- blood vessels, nerves and ureter pass
  138. Nephron
    • renal corpulscles: glomerulus and glomerular capsule (Bowmans)
    • Proximal convoluted tubules
    • Proximal straight tubule
    • thin tubule: descending and ascending parts
    • distal straight tubules
    • distal convoluted tubules
  139. Collecting Duct system
    • arched collecting duct(collecting tubules)
    • collecting duct (striaght collecting tubules)
    • 1. cortical collecting duct
    • 2. medullary collecting duct
    • 3. papillary duct
    • nephron +collecting duct system = uriniferus tubule (renal tubule)
  140. Renal Corpuscles
    • Glomerulus + Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule
    • vascular pole - arterioles (afferent or efferent)
    • urinary pole - proximal convoluted tubule begins
  141. Glomerulus
    • loops of branching and anastomosing caps (porous endotheilia cells) that connect to afferent and efferent arterioles
    • between caps - mesengial or intercapillary cells, stellate cells synthesized from extracellular matrix to support cap walls (similar to pericytes)
    • basement membrane(basal lamina) - separates endothelial cells of glomerular cap(filtration) from mesengial cells
  142. Blomerular (Bowman's) capsule
    • parietal layer and visceral layer, urinary space between
    • Parietal layer - simple squamous over thick basal lamina
    • visceral layer - caps of glomerulus and made from podocytes
    • basement membrane - separates endothelial cells of glomerular cap and podocytes
  143. Blomerular (Bowman's) capsule: Podocytes
    • primary process that give rise to secondary processes (pedicles) embrace caps of glomerulus
    • pedicles interdigitate with adjacent pedicles - Filtration slit between pedicles
    • filtrattion silte - bridged by thin electron dense layer called Slit diaphragm
  144. Filtration Barrier
    • glomerular endothelium (has pores) porous capillaries
    • Glomerular basement membrane
    • Glomerular epithelium (visceral layer of Bowman's capsule) w/ podocytes
    • 2nd podocytes - space between, pre-urinary fillrate out
  145. Proximal Convoluted and Straight Tubules
    • simple cuboidal or columnar cells- acidophilic cytoplasm
    • apex of cell - microvilli to form brush border
    • Basal straitions - infolding of membrane and alignment of mito
    • proximal convoluted - continue into proximal straight (descending thick thimb) brush border less distinct
    • Larger and more than DCT, see more in cross section
    • lumen is basophilic
  146. Thin tubules
    • form thin descending limb and thin ascending limb of the loop of Henle
    • simple squamous
    • nuclei flattened and protrude into the lumen
  147. Distal straight and convoluted tubules
    • shorter, fewer profiles are seen in cortex
    • simple cuboidal
    • lumen is larger in distal tubules
    • small flat cells
    • no brush border
    • clear lumen
  148. In cortex
    • renal corpuscle
    • PCT
    • DCT
    • collecting tubule
    • coritcal colecting duct
  149. In medulla
    • thin tubule
    • medullary collecting duct
    • proximal and distal staight duct
  150. path way of blood
    • renal corpusle
    • PCT
    • P straight
    • think segment
    • Distal straight
    • DCT
    • arched collecting duct
    • collecting tubule
    • cortical collecting duct
    • medullary collecting duct
    • papillary duct
  151. Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
    • formed between afferent arteriole and distal tubule
    • macula dense
    • juxtaglomerular cells
    • extraglomerular mesangial cells
  152. Macula densa
    • distal tubule establishes contact with the vascular pole of the renal corpuscles, modified sement called macula dense
    • columnar and nuclei are closely packed
    • cells- sensitive to chloride ion content of the tubular fluid, producing molecular signals that promote the constriction of the glomerular afferent arteriole, allows to regulate glomerular filtration
  153. Juxtaglomerular cell
    • adjacent to macula densa, smooth muscel cells of tunica media of afferent arteriole are modified - JG cells
    • ellipsoid nuclei and cytoplasm is full of secretory granules
    • stimulated by reduced blood pressure to produce renin
    • renin - angiotensiongen (plasma protein) - angiotensin I - angiotensin - angiotensin II (converting enzyme contained primarily in the lungs)
    • Angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction of arterioles and raises blood pressure
  154. extraglomerular mesangial cell
    • between macula densa and arterioles
    • continuous w/ mesangial cells of glomerulus
    • unknown function
  155. Collecting duct of kidney
    • arched collecting duct - connects DCT to collecting duct, simple cuboidal
    • smaller collectig duct - simple cuboidal, straight lateral cell membrane
    • larger collecting ducts - simple columnar
    • papillary ducts - 2 layered and becomes transitional towards opening, open into renal crest
    • collecting ducts - major component of urine-concentration mechanism
  156. vasculature of kidney - renal artery
    • renal artery - interlobar arteries - arcuate arteries - interlobular arteries
    • filter 1 L takes 100 L of filtrate
  157. Vasculature of kidney - afferent arteriole
    afferent arteriole - glomerulus - efferent arteriole - descending vasa recta - peritubular capillary network - ascending vasa recta (venules)
  158. Vasculature of kidney - interlobular vein
    interlobular vein - arcuate vein - interlobular vein - renal vein
  159. interstitium of kidney
    • close to hilus
    • between renal tubules and blood vessels
    • cortex - spares
    • medulla - plentiful
    • collagen fibrils and some fibroblasts
    • interstitial cells - lipid laden, prominent in medulla, unknown function
  160. Uninary passages
    • 1. calyces and reanl pevlis
    • 2. ureter
    • 3. urinary bladder
    • all 3 transtitional
  161. calyces and renal pelvis
    • transittional
    • loose CT
    • horse - mucous glands (simple branched tubuloalveolar glands) under epith, produce mucous in equine urine
  162. Ureter
    • mucosa - folded, transitional
    • lamina muscularis - absent
    • horse : propria submucosa - tubuloalveolar mucous glands
    • tunica muscularis - 3 ill defined layers, inner and outer longitudinal and a middle circular
    • tunica adventitia or serosa - loose CT w/ vessels and nerves
  163. Unirnary Bladder
    • horse, pig, cow, dog - lamina muscularis is present
    • cat - no lamina muscularis
    • tunica muscularis - smooth m. called detrusor muscles, irregular shaped interweaving bundles
    • can disten 50 to 100 times when full
  164. Avian Urinary system
    • Kidney - extende cranially up to lung and caudally at end of synsacum,
    • divided cranial middle and caudal
    • divided outer cortex and inner medulla
    • nephrons - 2 types, cortical (forms majority, is devoid of a medullary loop, henle), confined to cortical region of lobule
    • medullary type, penetrates the medullary region of lobules
  165. Male Genital System
    • testes(produce spermatozoa and hormones
    • epididymis(transport and maturation of spermatozoa)
    • ductus deferens(transport of spermatozoa)
    • accessory sex glands (produce seminal plasma)
    • - ampulla of ductus deferens
    • - vesicular gland
    • - prostate
    • - bulbourethral gland
    • urethra
    • penis and prepuce
  166. Testis : covering
    • tunica albuginea - predominantly collagen fibers, few elastic fibers and smooth m.
    • - interior surface has vasuclar layer formed by branches of testicular arteries and veins
    • visceral layer of tunica vaginalis - associated with tunica albuginea
  167. Septuli testis and mediastinum testis
    • connective tissue trabeculae from tunica albuginea
    • divides testicular parenchyma into varying number of testicular lobules
    • lobules - contain 4 seminiferous tubules
    • continuous with mediastinum testis - CT that contains rete testis and blood vessels
    • Mediastinum testis - well developed in ruminants, pigs and dogs,
    • - poorly developed in horses
  168. Seminiferous tubules
    • convoluted portion (tubuli contorti) and straight protion (tubuli recti)
    • 1. lamina propria
    • 2. sustentacular or sertoli cell
    • 3. spermatogenic cells
    • CT between tubules
  169. lamina propria
    • surrounds seminiferous tubules
    • basal lamina - inner most layer, collagen and elastic fibers surrounded by flat peritubular cells (tubular contraction)
    • outer most layer - fibrocytes and collagen fibrils
    • basal lamina + peritubular (myloid) cells + fibroblast
  170. Sustentacular cells (sertoli)
    • only see nucleus and sperm attached
    • elongated pyramidal cells - base adheres to the basal lamina and apex extends into lumen of seminiferous tubules
    • numerous processes that surrounds spermatogenic cells
    • abundant smooth ER
    • well developed golgi
    • numberous mito and lysosomes
    • oval nucleus at basal protion
    • adjacent sustenatacular cells are joined by tight junction and make blood testis barrier
  171. Functions of sertoli cells
    • spermatogenic cells - nutrition, protection, supportive function
    • blood testis barrier
    • secretion of intratubular fluid - sperm transport
    • production of mullerian inhibitory hormone
    • phagocytosis of degenerating spermatogenic cells and detached residual bodies of spermatids
  172. spermatogenic cells
    • located between and abover the sustentacular cells
    • represent carious stages of spermatogensis - spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatid and spermatozoa
  173. spermatogonium
    • next to basal lamina
    • small cell
    • nucleus contains pale -staining chromatin
  174. Primary spermatocyte
    • largest cells
    • obvious condensed chromosomes (visible)
  175. Secondary Spermatocytes
    • short lived
    • difficult to observe
    • imtermediate in size between primary and spermatid
  176. Spermatids
    • small
    • located towards lumen of seminiferous tubules
    • undergo spermiogenesis and form spermatozoa
  177. spermatozoa
    • transformation the heads become more deeply embedded in Sertoli cells
    • later forced into lumen
  178. Interstitial cells
    • spaces between seminiferous tubules - CT, nerves and vessels (lots)
    • Leydig - become apparent after pubert
    • rounded or polygonal in shape
    • central nucleus
    • eosinophilic cytoplasm
    • rich in lipid droplets
    • testosterone - endocrine, steroid secretion, causes secondary male sexual characteristics
  179. Intratesticular Genital Ducts
    • Staight tubules
    • Rete testis
    • Ductuli efferentes
  180. Straight tubules (tubuli recti)
    • connect the convoluted tubules to rete testis
    • simple squamous to simple columnar
    • supported by dense connective tissue sheath
  181. Rete testis
    • highly anastomotic network of channels
    • loose CT of mediastinum of testis
    • simple squamous to simple columnar
    • produces testicular fluid
    • continuous withe seminiferous tubules
  182. Ductuli efferentes
    • (8-25)
    • connect rete testis to ducuts epididymis
    • simple columnar ciliated - move spermatozoa
    • simple columnar nonciliated - absorb tubular fluid
  183. Epididymis
    • surrounded by tnica albuginea
    • divided into head, body and tail
    • ductus epididymis - long coiled, pseudostraified, loose CT , circular smooth m fibers
    • columnar cells - taller in head region, steriocilia - long, branched, thick, microvilli
    • basal cells
    • function - transport, maturation (head and body) and storage(tail) of spermatozoa
  184. Ductus Deferens
    • mucosa - pseudostratified columnar, simple columnar towards end of duct
    • propria submucosa - lose CT, rich in elastic fiber and highly vascular
    • -terminal part - ampullated (except in pig and cat) contains simple branched tubulo-alveolar glands (simple columnar with secretory activity)
    • tunica muscularis - intermingled circular, longitudinal and oblique layers (3 layers)
    • tunica serosa/adventitis - loose CT
  185. Sperm travel
    • seminiferous tubules(tubuli contorti)
    • straight tubules (recti)
    • rete testis
    • efferent ducts
    • ductus epidiymis
    • ductus deferens
  186. Accessory Sex gland
    • ampulla - ducuts deferens
    • vesicular gland paired - absent in carnivores
    • prostate gland - body or compact portion (absent in small ruminants), pars disseminata (absent in horse)
    • bulbourethral gland paired - absent in dog
  187. Vesicular gland
    • tubuloalveolar gland
    • pseudostratified columnar
    • intralobular and main secretory ducts - simple cuboidal
    • propria submucosa - loose CT , highly vascularized and continuous with dense CT trabeculae that subdivides the organ into lobes or lobules
    • tunica muscularis - varying width followed by tunica serosa/adventitia
    • horse - true vesicles, wide central lumen
    • bull - compact lobulated organ
  188. Prostate gland
    • compund tubuloalveolar gland
    • compact part - (body) surrounds pelvic urethra,
    • disseminate part - in propria submucosa of pelvic urethra, surrounded by striated urethral muscle
    • both parts surrounded by capsule of dense irregular CT
    • secretory tubules, alveoli and intraglandular duct are lined by simple cuboidal or columnar, change to transitional at terminarl portion of duct
    • often - concentrically laminated concentrations of secretoy material ar found in the tubules and alveoli
  189. Bulbourethral gland
    • compund tubular or tubuloalveolar gland
    • fibroelastic capsule containing varying amount of striated muscel cells
    • secretory protion is lined by simple tall columnar and show mucin reaction
    • collecting ducts - simple cuboidal w/ dark cytopasm
    • large intraglandular duct - pseudostratified columnar, changes to transitional at opening
  190. Dog accessory sex glands
    • ampulla
    • prostate body
    • prostate pars
  191. Cat accessory sex glands
    • prostate body
    • prostate pars
    • bulbourethral gland
  192. Pig accessory sex glands
    • vesicular
    • prostate body
    • prostate pars
    • bulbourethral gland
  193. Sheep / goat accessory sex glands
    • ampulla
    • vesicular
    • prostate pars
    • bulbourethral gland
  194. Bovine accessory sex glands
    • ALL
    • ampulla
    • vesicaular
    • prostate body
    • prostate pars
    • bulbourethral gland
  195. Horse accessory sex glands
    • ampulla
    • vesicular
    • prostate body
    • bulbourethral gland
  196. Urethra
    • pelvis and penile urethra
    • folded muscosa - transitional
    • propria submucosa - erectile tissue, endothelium-lined caverns of various sizes(vascular stratum) in pelvic urethra
    • penile urethra - larger cavernous spaces (corpus spongiosum)
    • tunica muscularis - smooth m by bladder, striated m. in remainder of urethra
    • tunica adventitia - loose CT or dense irregular CT
  197. Penis
    • Corpora cavernosa - erectile tissue, endothelium lined caverns, CT and smooth m. surrounded by tunica albuginea and divided by median septum
    • Corpora Spongiosum - surrounds penile urethra and also composed of erectile tisse
    • Glans penis - well developed in horse and dog, contains erectile tissue, and highley vascularized areolar tissue, stratified squamous, rich in special nerve endings
  198. Avian Male reproduction
    • testis - very thin tunica albunginea, septa and lobulation are absent, no mediastimum
    • epididymis - smaller and less conspicuous than mammals, numerous efferent ducutles, lined by ciliated psedostratified columnar epith, extend along whole length of epididymis, cant distinguish head or body
  199. Avian Male reproduction
    • no homologous accessory sex glands as in mammals
    • some birds at caudal end of ductus deferens forms a mass of convolution called seminal glomus - storage of sperm
  200. Avian Male reproduction - Phallus
    • homologus with penis in mammals
    • domestic fowl - mounted on crest of ventral lip of vent
    • median phallic body - (about 1.5 -3.5 mm) and a pair of lateral phallic bodies which are about 2x4 mm
    • ejaculation - protrusion of phallus occur and semen is discharged from papillae of ducuts deferens into median groove and at same time the ventral tip of phallus is applied to the protruded vent of the female