Neurophysiology Test 3

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bcb2127
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Neurophysiology Test 3
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2010-10-11 22:29:38
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Neurophysiology
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Neurophysiology Test 3 Lecture 12
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  1. _________ ________: Moves bones around joints; Moves eyes in skull; Controls respiration; Controls facial expression; Produces speech; enclosed in connective tissue sheaths.
    Skeletal Muscle
  2. ______ _______ ______: somatic muscle innervated by somatic motor neurons in the ventral horn of spinal cord.
    Lower Motor Neuron
  3. Bundles of LMN= ________ _______: join with dorsal roots to form spinal nerve that exits SC= contain sensory and motor, thus they are mixed spinal nerves.
    Ventral Roots
  4. ________ Ventral Horn: innervates axial muscles

    ________ Ventral Horn: innervates distal muscles

    ________ Ventral Horn: innervates flexors.
    ________ Ventral Horn: innervates flexors.
    • Medial Ventral Horn: innervates axial muscles
    • Lateral Ventral Horn: innervates distal muscles
    • Dorsal Ventral Horn: innervates flexors
    • Ventral Ventral Horn: innervates extensors
  5. ______ Motor Neuron: trigger force of muscle
    Alpha
  6. _____ _______ _______: collection of alpha motor neuron innervating 1 muscle.
    Motor Neuron Pool
  7. _____ _____ _____: ( effects presynaptic AP) causes EPSP's in muscle fibers (endplate potential) and triggers AP in muscle. Results in muscle twitch. Twitch summation causes increased tension in muscle fibers and smooth contraction.
    Vary Firing Rate of motor neurons
  8. _______ _______: high frequency with barrage of AP's resulting in postsynaptic responses.
    Temporal Summation
  9. Recruiting of additional synergistic motor units results in extra _____ on a muscle.
    tension
  10. Muscle recruitment goes from ____ to ______.
    smallest to largest. why finger control is possible when muscle under small and light load than with larger load (size principle)
  11. _____ _____: slow to contract; can sustain contraction long time; found in antigravity muscles of leg.
    Red Fibers
  12. _____ _____: fast to contract; rapid fatigue; escape muscles (jump, run, human arm)
    white fibers
  13. True or False: each type of motor units coexist in a given musle but motor units contains only single type.
    True
  14. _____ motor units: rapid fatiguing white fibers; larger axons= faster axons; occasional high frequency bursts of AP's.
    Fast motor units
  15. _______ motor units: slow fatiguing red fibers; smaller axons= slower axons; steady low threshold.
    slow
  16. True or False: Muscle fiber type cannot be changed.
    False: put slow axons on fast muscles results in changed to slow muscles and fiber type changed
  17. ________ ______ Contraction: AP's in presynaptic membrane release Ach from pre- into cleft. This activates nicotinic Ach receptors on post-synaptic membrane (EPSP's). Causes AP in muscle fiber and triggers Ca2+ release from organelle and contraction of fiber.
    Muscle Fiber Contraction
  18. _________: excitable membrane enclosing muscle fibers
    sarcolemma
  19. _______: within muscle fibers; cylindrical, contract due to AP going down sarcolemma and surrounded by Sarcoplasmic Reticulum which Ca2+.
    Myofibrils
  20. AP enters sarcoplasmic reticulum by tunnel: _____ _____
    T Tubules
  21. _______: voltage sensitive cluster of 4 Ca2+ channels linked to calcium release channel in SR
    tetrad
  22. ____ lines: myofibril divided into segments by disks.
    _______: Z lines and myofibril in between.
    _____ _____: anchored to Z line.
    ______ _____: between thin filaments.
    ______ ______: thin filaments slide along thick filaments bringing Z lines closer= shortens sarcomere= Sliding Filament Model
    • Z lines
    • Sarcomere
    • Thin filaments
    • Thick filaments
    • muscle contraction
  23. Sliding filament model: occurs due to interaction between ____ and ____.
    actin and myosin
  24. Myosin can't bind to actin as actin sites are covered by _____.
    Troponin
  25. _____ ______: stretch receptor; special skeletal muscle fibers in fibrous capsule in parallel with muscle fibers. Middle is " swollen".
    Muscle Spindle (1a sensory axons wrap around muclse fibers of spindles)
  26. ____sensory axons: larges and fastest, enter SC via dorsal root adn form synapses on interneurons and alpha motor neurons of ventral horn.
    1a
  27. _____ ______ reflex: increase synapse separates sensory input from motor neuron output.
    Myotatic Reflex (Stretch Reflex)
  28. _______ _______: weight on a muscle causes muscle spindle to stretch which depolarizes 1a endings and depolarizes alpha motor neurons. This increases AP in motor neurons and muscle contracts.
    Myotatic Reflex (Stretch Reflex)
  29. _______ Fibers: great number of fibers outside of spindle (muscle bulk) innervated by alpha motor neurons.
    _______ Fibers: modified skeletal fibers in muscle spindle; innervated by gamma motor neurons
    • Extrafusal
    • Intrafusal
  30. _____ Loop: gamma motor neuron--> intrafusal muscle fiber--> 1a afferent--> alpha motor neuron--> extrafusal muscle fiber--> repeat
    Gamma
  31. ____ _____ ____: proprioception, monitors force of contraction; located at junction on muscle and tendon; innervated by 1b afferents in series with muscle fibers.
    Golgi Tendon Organ
  32. _____ _____ _____: some inhibitory to alpha motor neurons that innervate same muscle. protects muscle from overload and regulates muscle tension in optimal range.
    Reverse Myotatic Reflex
  33. ____ _____: respond to change in angle, direction, and velocity of movement of joint.
    joint receptors
  34. ______ ______: myotatic reflex involves contraction of flexors and also relaxation of antagonist.

    ______: descending control destroyed
    reciprocal inhibition

    spasticity
  35. _____ _____: withdraw limb from pain

    __ ___ ___: activates extensors and inhibits flexors of opposite limb
    • flexor reflex
    • crossed extensor reflex
  36. _____ of _____: maintians muscle bulk, helps support circulatory function, assist in activities of daily living, may assist with postural control
    Advantages of Spasticity

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