Social Psych

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Social Psych
2010-10-11 23:28:54
Midterm definitions

Social Psych Midterm prep
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  1. Define Social Psychology
    The scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by other people.
  2. General Tasks of Scientific Research
    • 1. Description - facts, observations
    • 2. Explanation
    • - Theories that connect and organize existing observations and suggest fruitful paths for future research.
    • - Help us make predictions about future events & control previously unmanageable phenomena
  3. The Person
    Features & Characteristics that individuals carry into social situations (age, sex, race, orientation, attitudes, preferences).

    Can be genetic/physical characteristics or based on previous learning
  4. The Situation
    Events or circumstances outside the person
  5. - Fleeting events (a stranger winks at you)
    - long-lasting influences (growing up in a small town)
  6. Person-Situation Interaction
    How people interact with their situations (Teens may brag to peers but be quiet and polite with teachers)
  7. Counterfactual Thinking
    Interpreting current situation based on thinking about what "might have been"
  8. Bronze medal winners are happier than silver. Silver thinks "might have gotten gold", but bronze thinks "might not have won a medal at all!"
  9. Four Core Processes of Social Cognition
    • 1. Attention - selecting information
    • 2. Interpretation - giving information meaning
    • 3. Judgement - using information to form impressions/make opinions
    • 4. Memory - storing information for future use
  10. Correspondence Bias/Fundamental Attribution Error
    Over-estimating the causal influence of personality factors on behavior while underestimating the causal influence of the situation.

    -Someone acts like a bitch and you assume they are simply a bitch (personality factor), and you fail to take into account that they just received bad news or something to that effect.
  11. Schema / Schemata
    A mental representation capturing the general characteristics of a particular class of episodes, events, or individuals.

    Great Leaders - want to better the lives of those around them, use charisma to influence others, etc
  12. Exemplar
    a mental representation of a specific episode, event, or individual.

    exemplars of great leaders might be: Obama, Gandhi, Eleanor Roosevelt, etc.
  13. Attitudes
    favorable or unfavorable evaluations of a particular person, object, event, or idea
  14. Self-Esteem
    Our attitude toward ourselves
  15. Self-Presentation
    The process through which we try to control the impressions people form of us.
  16. Descriptive Norms
    A norm that defines what is commonly done in a situation. (Typical behavior)
  17. Injunctive Norm
    A norm that describes what is commonly approved or disapproved in a situation. (Shoulds and Should nots)

    "Rules" - Don't laugh in church
  18. Individualistic vs Collectivistic Cultures
    Individualistic - a culture that socializes it's members to think of themselves as individuals and to give priority to personal goals

    Collectivistic - a culture that socializes it's members to think of themselves in terms of their relationships and as members of the larger social group. Taught to prioritize the concerns of the relationship partners and groups before their own.
  19. Socialization
    The process whereby a culture teaches its members about its beliefs, customs, habits and language.
  20. Self-fulfilling Prophecy
    When an initially inaccurate expectation leads to actions that cause the expectation to come true.

    (Students with parents and teachers who expect them to do well are more likely to perform to their potential.)
  21. Goal of conserving mental effort
    • World is Complex and Information-Rich
    • Human Attentional Capacity is Limited

    • We must use simplification strategies
    • Expectations
    • Dispositional Inferences
    • Heuristics
  22. Representativeness Heuristic
    Mental shortcut used to classify something as belonging to a certain catefory to the extent that it is similar to a typical case from that category.

    (Jim drinks a lot of beer and reads sports magazines... therefore he must be a frat boy.)
  23. Availability Heuristic
    Mental shortcut used to estimate the likelihood of an event by the ease with which instances of that even come to mind.

    (ie: People overestimate deaths from firearms and underestimate deaths from diabetes because they more easily remember hearing about handgun fatalities than deaths from diabetes)
  24. Anchoring & Adjustment Heurisitic
    Mental shortcut which begins with a rough estimation as a starting point (anchor) and then adjust this estimate to take into account unique characteristics of the present situation.

    (If you want to guess your grade on your final exam, you might use your midterm grade as the anchor and adjust up or down based on unique characteristics - different type of test, you've studied more/less, etc.)
  25. Downward vs Upward Social Comparison
    Downward Social Comparison - comparing ourselves with someone less fortunate (Enhances self image - I'm better off than they are.)

    Upward social comparison - comparing ourselves with someone who is better off than we are. (I'm in the same general range as those better off than me.) Works when you are on a trajectory to succeed, but can backfire if you realize you're not actually as well off as those you are comparing yourself to.
  26. Self-Serving Bias
    The tendency to take persona credit for our success and to blame external factors for our failures.

    • Do well on a test - I worked hard and I knew my stuff!
    • Do poorly on a test - The teacher didn't teach us well, we didn't cover that material, the test was bogus, etc.
  27. Attributional Logic-
    Theories that explain how people determine the causes of behavior (explain how I view the the causes of some one else's behavior)
  28. Discounting Principle (Attributional Logic)
    As the number of possible causes for an even increases, our confidence that any particular cause is the TRUE cause decreases.

    (Jack Proposed because he loves Jill... or because his friends like her, or because she's wealthy, or because she puts up with his bad habits.)
  29. Augmenting Principle (Attributional Logic)
    If an event occurs DESPITE the presence of strong opposing forces, we should give more weight to those possible causes that lead to the event.

    (Jack proposed to Jill because he loves her... even though his friends hate her, she's poor, and she nags him about his bad habits.)
  30. Covariation Model (Attributional Logic)

    Internal/Person Attribution
    • Consensus is Low (Others aren't interested in marrying Jill)
    • Distinctiveness is Low (Jack will marry anyone)
    • Consistency is High (Jack has been proposing and will continue to propose)

    Jack is Desperate
  31. Covariation Model (Attributional Logic)

    External/Situation Attribution
    • Consensus is HIGH - (Everyone wants to marry Jill)
    • Distinctiveness is HIGH - (Jack wants to marry ONLY Jill)
    • Consistency is HIGH - (Jack has been proposing and will continue to propose)

    Jill is a Catch!
  32. Covariation Model (Attributional Logic)

    Person X Situation Interaction Attribution
    • Consensus is LOW - (No one else wants to marry Jill)
    • Distinctiveness is HIGH - (Jack wants to marry ONLY Jill)
    • Consistency is HIGH (Jack keeps proposing)

    Jack and Jill have that special magic.
  33. Gender Differences regarding Self-Presentation
    Women - more likely to conform

    Men - also want to be liked, but other self-presentational goals (to be viewed as powerful, dominant) compete with the desire to conform.
  34. Attitudinal Innoculation
    A technique for increasing individuals' resistance to a strong argument by first giving them a weak, easily defeated version of it.
  35. Central Route to Persuasion
    The way people are persuaded when they focus on the quality of the arguments in the message.

    • Used when audience is HIGHLY MOTIVATED and HIGHLY ABLE to think about the message.
    • (Provides lasting change that resists fading and counter attacks)
  36. Peripheral Route to Persuasion
    The way people are persuaded when they focus on factors other than the quality of the arguments - such as the number of arguments or the communicator's attractiveness.

    • Used when audience has LOW MOTIVATION OR ABILITY to think about the message.
    • Change is temporary and susceptible to fading & counter-attacks.
  37. Conformity
    Behavior change designed to match the actions of others.
  38. Compliance
    Behavior change that occurs as a result of a direct request
  39. Social Influence
    A change in overt behavior caused by real or imagined pressure from others.
  40. Asch's Conformity Study
    Subjects were shown a standard line and three comparison lines, then told to choose the comparison line that matched the length of the the standard line. Confederates chose the incorrect comparison line. This influenced subjects to conform by choosing the incorrect line as well.
  41. Foot-in-the-Door technique
    Technique that increases compliance with a large request by first getting compliance with a smaller, related request.

    (Wear this small lapel pin supporting our troops... then they are more likely to agree to displaying a lawn sign supporting the troops.)
  42. Participant Observation
    Research approach in which the researcher infiltrates the setting to be studied and observes its workings from within.
  43. Cialdini's Participant-Observer studies
    • He enrolled in training programs of a broad range of influence related professions
    • -Sales
    • -Advertising
    • -Fund-raising
    • to find common principles of influence

    Found Reciprocation, Commitment/Consistency, Authority, Social Validation, Scarcity, Liking/Friendship(Tupperware)
  44. Miglram Experiment
    Obedience - subjects told to administer severe electric shocks to participants.
  45. Illusory Correlation
    Seeing the relationship one expects to see in a set of data where one doesn't exist

    Forming false associations between a minority and a set of statistically rare characteristics - stereotypes.
  46. Observer Bias
    Biased expectations about what the researcher expects to find may lead the researcher to ignore some influences on behavior while exaggerating others.

    Researching flirting in a bar - woman flips her hair - interpreted as a flirt when she was really just trying to get her hair out of her face.
  47. Confirmation bias (Expectancy Confirmation)
    Tendency for people to favor information that confirms ideas they already believe are true. (Preferring sources that confirm your existing attitudes.)
  48. Culture
    The customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group; also : the characteristic features of everyday existence (as diversions or a way of life} shared by people in a place or time
  49. Instrumentality vs Expressive Character Traits
    Instrumental traits - (masculine) - Assertiveness, ambition... allow a person to accomplish difficult tasks or goals

    Expressive traits (feminine) - warmth, sensitivity, ability to express tender feelings, empathy - traits that foster relationships with others.
  50. Central Organizing Trait
    Any characteristic that has a strong effect on the way that person will be judged. (Race, occupation, etc.)
  51. Learned Helplessness
    Condition where individuals learn that their behavior has no effect on the environment.
  52. Seligman's Learned Helplessness Experiments
    Exposing dogs to electric shocks that they could not escape from Then when they were shocked in a situation they COULD escape from, they didn't bother.
  53. Looking-glass self
    People shape themselves based on other's perceptions of them.
  54. Four Major Social Psychology Perspectives
    • Sociocultural
    • Evolutionary
    • Social Learning
    • Social Cognitive
  55. Sociocultural Perspective
    Theoretical viewpoint that searches for the causes of social behavior in influences from larger social groups (nationality, social class, current historical trends)
  56. Evolutionary perspective
    Theoretical viewpoint that searches for the causes of social behavior in the physical and psychological predispositions that helped our ancestors survive and reproduce.
  57. Social Learning Perspective
    Theoretical viewpoint that focuses on past learnig experiences as determinants of a person's social behaviors.
  58. Social Cognitive Perspective
    A theoretical viewpoint that focuses on the mental processes involved in paying attention to, interpreting and remembering social experiences.
  59. Over justification Hypothesis
    An individual's intrinsic interest in an activity will decrease when they are provided with extrinsic rewards. (IE: I love to write, but now that I'm getting paid to write, I don't love it as much. )