Cultural Anthropology Chapter 6

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anahoj
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41558
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Cultural Anthropology Chapter 6
Updated:
2010-10-12 00:01:54
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Cultural Anthropology Ferraro
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Language and Communication
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  1. arbitrary nature of language
    The meanings attached to words in any language are not based on a logical or rational system but rather are arbitrary.
  2. displacement
    The ability to talk about things that are remote in time and space.
  3. closed system of communication
    Communication in which the user acannot create new sounds or words by combining two or more existing sounds or words.
  4. open system of communication
    Communication in which thee user can create new sounds or words by combining two or more existing sounds or words.
  5. phonology
    The study of a language's sound system.
  6. descriptive linguistics
    The branch of anthropological linguistics that studies how languages are structured.
  7. phonemes
    The smallest units of sound in a language that distinguish meaning.
  8. morphemes
    The smallest linguistic forms (usually words) that convey meaning.
  9. free morphene
    A morpheme that can convey meaning while standing alone without being attached to other morphemes.
  10. bound morpheme
    A morpheme that can convey meaning only when combined with another morpheme.
  11. grammar
    The systematic rules by which sounds are combined in a language o enable users to send and receive meaningful utterances.
  12. morphology
    The study of the rules governing how morphemes are formed into words.
  13. syntax
    The linguistic rules, found in all languages, that determine how phrases and sentences are constructed.
  14. synchronic analysis
    The analysis of cultural data at a single point in time, rather than through time.
  15. diachronic analysis
    The analysis of sociocultural data through time, rather than at a single point in time.
  16. historical linguistics
    The study of how languages change over time.
  17. language family
    A grouping of related languages.
  18. cultural linguistics
    The study of the relationship between language and culture.
  19. cultural emphasis of a language
    The idea that the vocabulary in any language tends to emphasize words that are adaptively important in that culture.
  20. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
    The notion that a person's language shapes her or his perceptions and view of the world.
  21. doublespeak
    The use of euphemisms to confuse or deceive.
  22. code switching
    The practice of adapting one's language depending on the social situation.
  23. diglossia
    The situation in which two forms of the same language are spoken by people in the same language community at different times and places.
  24. dialects
    Regional or class variations of a language that are sufficiently similar to be mutually intelligible.
  25. nonverbal communication
    The various means by which humans send and receive messages without using words (for example, gestures, facial expressions, and touching).

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