Music History Exam 2.txt

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Music History Exam 2.txt
2010-10-12 03:29:13
Music History Terms

Study for UAF Mus221 exam 2
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  1. Renaissance
    (French,"rebirth") Period of art, cultural, and music history between the Middle Ages and the Baroque Period, marked by Humanism, a revival of ancient culture and ideas, and a new focus on the individual, the world, and the senses.
  2. Humanism
    Movement in the Renaissance to revive ancient Greek and Roman culture and to study things pertaining to human knowledge and experience.
  3. Court Chapels
  4. Imitative Counterpoint
    Contrapuntal Texture marked by Imitation between voices.
  5. Homophony
    Musical Texture in which all voices move together in essentially the same Rhythm, as distinct from Polyphony and Heterophony. See also Melody and Accompaniement.
  6. Ottaviano Petrucci
  7. Johannes Tinctoris
  8. Gioseffo Zarlino, Le institutioni harmoniche
  9. Pythagorean Intonation
    A system of tuning Notes in the Scale, common in the Middle Ages, in which all perfect fourths and fifths are in perfect tune.
  10. Just Intonation
    A system of tuning Notes in the Scale, common in the Renaissance, in which most (but not all) thirds, sixths, perfect fourths, and perfect fifths are in perfect tune.
  11. Mean-Tone Temperament
    A type of Temperament in which the fifths are tuned small so that the major thirds sound well; frequently used for keyboard instruments from the Renaissance through the eighteenth century.
  12. Equal Temperament
    A TEMPERAMENT in which the octave is divided into twelve equal SEMITONES. This is the most commonly used tuning for Western music today.
  13. Temperaments
    Any system of tuning NOTES in the SCALE in which pitches are adjusted to make most or all INTERVALS sound well, though perhaps not in perfect tune.
  14. Chromaticism
    The use of many NOTES from the CHROMATIC SCALE in a passage or piece.
  15. Partbooks
    A manuscript or printed book containing the music for one voice or instrumental part of a POLYPHONIC COMPOSITION (most often, an anthology of pieces); to perform any piece, a complete set of partbooks is needed, so that all the parts are represented.
  16. Imitate
    (1) To repeat or slightly vary in one voice or part a segment of MELODY just heard in another, at pitch or transposed. (2) To follow the example of an existing piece or style in composing a new piece.
  17. Pierre Attaingnant
  18. Franchino Gaffurio
  19. Heinrich Glareanus, Dodekachordon
  20. Contenance Angloise
    (French, "English guise") Characteristic quality of early-fifteenth-century English music, marked by pervasive CONSONANCE with frequent use of HARMONIC thirds and sixths, often in parallel motion.
  21. Farburden
    English style of IMPROVISED POLYPHONY from the late Middle Ages and RENAISSANCE, in which a CHANT in the middle voice is joined by an upper voice moving in parallel a perfect fourth above it and a lower voice that follows below the chant mostly in parallel thirds, moving to a fifth below to mark the beginning and end of phrases and the ends of most words.
  22. L'homme armé
  23. Motet (15th century and later)
    From the fifteenth century on, any polyphonic setting of a Latin text (other than a MASS) could be called a motet; from the sixteenth century on, the term was also applied to sacred compositions in other languages.
  24. Fauxbourdon
    (pronounced FOH-boor-donh) Continental style of POLYPHONY in the early RENAISSANCE, in which two voices are written, moving mostly in parallel sixths and ending each PHRASE on an octave, while a third unwritten voice is sung in parallel perfect fourths below the upper voice.
  25. John Dunstable
  26. Burgundy
  27. Binchois
  28. Guillaume Du Fay
  29. Head-Motive
    Initial passage or MOTIVE of a piece or MOVEMENT; used especially for a motive or PHRASE that appears at the beginning of each movement of a MOTTO MASS or CANTUS-FIRMUS MASS.
  30. Motto Mass
    POLYPHONIC MASS in which the MOVEMENTS are linked primarily by sharing the same opening MOTIVE or PHRASE.
  31. Carol
    English song, usually on a religious subject, with several stanzas and a BURDEN, or REFRAIN. From the fifteenth century on, most carols are POLYPHONIC.
  32. Hemiola
    from Greek hemiolios, "one and a half") A metrical effect in which three duple units substitute for two triple ones, such as three successive quarter NOTES within a MEASURE of 6/8, or three two-beat groupings in two measures of triple METER. Hemiola may occur between voices or successive measures.
  33. Burden
    (1) In English medieval POLYPHONY, the lowest voice. (2) In the English CAROL, the REFRAIN.
  34. Mass
    (from Latin missa, "dismissed") (1) The most important service in the Roman church. (2) A musical work setting the texts of the ORDINARY of the Mass, typically KYRIE, GLORIA, CREDO, SANCTUS, and AGNUS DEI. In this book, as in common usage, the church service is capitalized (the Mass), but a musical setting of the Mass Ordinary is not (a mass).
  35. Cantilena
    (Latin, "song") POLYPHONIC song not based on a CANTUS FIRMUS; used especially for polyphonic songs by English composers of the late thirteenth through early fifteenth centuries.
  36. Paraphrase
    Technique in which a CHANT or other MELODY is reworked, often by altering rhythms and adding NOTES, and placed in a POLYPHONIC setting.
  37. Plainsong Mass
    A MASS in which each MOVEMENT is based on a CHANT to the same text (the KYRIE is based on a chant Kyrie, the GLORIA on a chant Gloria, and so on).
  38. Cantus-Firmus Mass or Tenor Mass
    POLYPHONIC MASS in which the same CANTUS FIRMUS is used in each MOVEMENT, normally in the TENOR.
  39. Cantus-Firmus Imitation Mass
    POLYPHONIC MASS in which each MOVEMENT is based on the same polyphonic work, using that work's TENOR (sometimes the SUPERIUS) as a CANTUS FIRMUS, normally in the tenor, and borrowing some elements from the other voices of the model to use in the other voices of the mass.
  40. Contratenor Bassus, Altus
    (Latin) In fifteenth-century POLYPHONY, CONTRATENOR parts that lie relatively high (ALTUS) or low (BASSUS) in comparison to the TENOR. Often simply written as "altus" or "bassus," these are the ancestors of the vocal ranges ALTO and BASS.
  41. Superius
    (Latin, "highest") In fifteenth- and sixteenth-century POLYPHONY, the highest part (compare CANTUS).
  42. Lieder
    (German, "song"; pl. Lieder) Song with German words, whether MONOPHONIC, POLYPHONIC, or for voice with accompaniment; used especially for polyphonic songs in the RENAISSANCE and songs for voice and PIANO in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
  43. Jean De Ockeghem
  44. Josquin Des Prez
  45. Henricus Isaac
  46. Imitation Mass
    (or parody mass) POLYPHONIC MASS in which each MOVEMENT is based on the same polyphonic model, normally a CHANSON or MOTET, and all voices of the model are used in the mass, but none is used as a CANTUS FIRMUS.
  47. Canon
    (Latin, "rule") (1) Rule for performing music, particularly for deriving more than one voice from a single line of notated music, as when several voices sing the same MELODY, entering at certain intervals of time or singing at different speeds simultaneously. (2) COMPOSITION in which the voices enter successively at determined pitch and time intervals, all performing the same MELODY.
  48. Retrograde
    Backward statement of a previously heard MELODY, passage, or TWELVE-TONE ROW.
  49. Mensuration Canon
    A CANON in which voices move at different rates of speed by using different MENSURATION SIGNS.
  50. Point of Imitation
    Passage in a POLYPHONIC work in which two or more parts enter in IMITATION.
  51. Paraphrase Mass
    POLYPHONIC MASS in which each MOVEMENT is based on the same MONOPHONIC MELODY, normally a CHANT, which is PARAPHRASED in most or all voices rather than being used as a CANTUS FIRMUS in one voice.
  52. Antoine Busboys
  53. Jacob Obrecht
  54. Text Depiction
    Using musical gestures to reinforce or suggest images in a text, such as rising on the word "ascend."
  55. Text Expression
    Conveying or suggesting through musical means the emotions expressed in a text.