CH1:History & Approaches

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CH1:History & Approaches
2010-10-12 03:51:31
ap psychology

History & approaches of psychology vocab
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  1. basic research
    want to get information about what your studying (establishing knowledge)
  2. psychology
    scientific study of mental processes & behavior
  3. biological view
    searches for the causes of behavior in the functioning of genes, the brain and nervous system
  4. sociocultural view
    emphasizing the importance of social interaction, learning, and cultural perspective
  5. sports psychologists
    help athletes refine their focus on competition, goals, increase motivation, deal with anxiety, & fear of failure
  6. functionalism
    • William James
    • historical school of psychology that believed mental processes could best be understood in terms of their adaptive purpose & function
  7. applied research
    basic research that is applied to the field
  8. human factors psychologists
    psychologists that explore how people & machines interact at home in the workplace to minimize frustration & maximize safety & productivity
  9. psychoanalysis
    • Sigmund Freud
    • emphasized unconscious processes, repressed memories, & early childhood experiences.
  10. evolutionary view
    • Charles Darwin
    • sees behavior and mental processes in terms of their genetic adaptations for survival and reproduction (natural selection)
  11. trait view
    • Hippocrates
    • personalities were rules by four body fluids (personality types)
  12. school psychologists
    assess & counsel students, perform behavioral interventions if necessary
  13. clinical psychologists
    help people evaluate and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral problems
  14. social psychologists
    focus on how a person's mental life & behavior is shaped by interactions with others
  15. introspection
    report on one's conscious mental experiences (inward looking)
  16. experimental psychologists
    conduct basic research in psychology, work primarily in schools/universities
  17. developmental psychologists
    study people throughout their lifespan
  18. industrial psychologists
    aim to improve productivity and the quality of work life by applying psychological principles and methods to the workplace
  19. structuralism
    • Wilhelm Wundt
    • Edward Titchener
    • revealing basic structures or elements of the mind, break down experience into sensations
  20. confirmation bias
    tendency to attend to evidence that complements & confirms our beliefs or expectations, while ignoring evidence that does not
  21. humanistic view
    • Abraham Maslow
    • Carl Rogers
    • emphasizing positive side of human ability, growth, potential, and free will; main goal to reach self-actualization
  22. rehab psychologists
    help clients with mental retardation, developmental disabilities, and disabilities resulting from stroke or accidents
  23. developmental view
    interaction between the heredity programmed in our genes & the experiences presented by our environment, covers the whole lifespan
  24. cognitive view
    emphasizes mental processes such as learning, memory, perception, and thinking brain is like biological computer
  25. health psychologists
    concentrate on biological, psychological, and social factors involved in health & illness
  26. gestalt psychology
    • Max Wertheimer
    • historical school of psychology that sought to understand how the brain works by studying perception, "perceptual wholes"
  27. behavorism
    • John Watson
    • Rosalie Rayner
    • B.F. Skinner
    • sought to make psychology an objective science focused only on behavior- observable events, rewards, and punishments