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2010-10-13 21:16:30

biology 4
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  1. Gametes that contain half the chromosomes
    Haploid (n)
  2. The total number of number of chromosomes in a new cell is described as a ______
    Diploid (2n)
  3. 23 in the sperm +
    23 in the egg =
  4. Meiosis results in ____ daughter cells
  5. during meiosis I, homologus chromosomes come together and line up side-by-side, the _______ results in a tertrad, an association of 4 chromatids that stay in close proximity until they seperate
  6. Daughter cells from meiosis become gametes
  7. Chromosomes occur in pairs, _______ they look alike and carry genes for the same traits
    homologous chromosomes
  8. Meiosis I produces _____
    2 haploid daughter cells (n)
  9. Meiosis II produces______
    4 haploid daughter cells
  10. there are three ways an individual is assured a different combo:
    • 1. crossing over
    • 2. following meiosis, gametes have all possible combos of chromosomes
    • 3. sperm and egg carry verying combos of chromosomes
  11. _________ is the production of sperm: occurs in the testes
  12. _____ is the production of eggs; occurs in the ovaries
  13. Meiosis in males results in ______ that become sperm
    4 haploid cells
  14. Meiosis in females results in _____ and ____or _____
    1 egg and 2 or 3 haploid polar bodies
  15. Humans have: 46 chromosomes and 23 pairs
  16. 22 pairs are ______ - nonsex chromosomes
  17. 1 pair is the ______ - beucause they differ between sexes
    sex chromosomes
  18. Males have a (___) chromosomes
  19. Females have a (____) chromosomes
  20. Any cell in the body, except red blood celss, can be a source of chromosomes for karyotyping
  21. _____ is a procedure for obtaining a sample of a amniotic fluid from the uterus of a pregent wouman: 14th and 17th week of pregnancy
  22. _____ is aprocedure for obtaining chorionic cells in the region where the placenta will develop: 5th week of pregnancy
    Chorionic Villi Sampling (CVS)
  23. _____ occurs during meiosis I when both members of a homologous pair go into the same daughter cell
  24. ______ also occurs in meiosis II when the sister chromatids fail to seperate and both daughter chromosomes go intothe same gamete
  25. ______ (aka trisomy 21) because the individual usually has 3 copies of chromosomes 21
    Down Syndrome
  26. A chromosomal delection is responsible for ______
    moon shaped face
    Cri du Chat Syndrome
  27. A child's sex is determined by the father
  28. ______ is when the X is nearly broken, leaving the tip hanging
    Fragile X Syndrome
  29. Turner Syndrome
    • XO
    • has only one sex chromosomes
  30. Klinefelter Syndrome
    • XXY
    • no matter how many X chromosomes are involved. a person with a Y chromosome is a male
  31. Poly-X-Females
    • XXX
    • tall and skinny
    • XXXX
    • severely reatrded
  32. Jacob Syndrome
    • XYY
    • only occur from nondisjunction during spermatogensis
  33. _____ refers to the genes of an individual
  34. Upercase letter; always win
    Dominant allele
  35. Lowercase letter
    recessive allele
  36. Alternate forms of a gene having the same position on a pair of chromosomes and affect the same trait
  37. ____ is the physical appearance of the genes
    Phenotype (unattached)
  38. ______ is EE, two of the same dominant allele; phenotype displayed is diminant
    Homozygous dominant
  39. _____ is ee; two of the same recessive allele; phenotype displayed is recessive
    Homozygous recessive
  40. _____ is Ee; one dominant allele and one recessive allele; phenotype displayed is dominant
  41. EE Ee ee
    attached, unattached
    • Genotype
    • Phenotype
  42. A _______ is used to determine the phenotypic ratio among the offspring when all possible sperm are given a chance to fertilize all possible eggs
    Punnett square
  43. _____ occurs when one trait is goverened by 2 or more sets of alleles
    the effects are also additive
    the results is a continuous variation of phenotypes
    Multifactoral inheritance
  44. Environmental influences example is ______
    Himalayan Rabbits
  45. _____ occurs when alleles are equally expressed in a heterozygote; blood type and skin color are examples
  46. ______ is exhibited when they heterozygote has an intermediate phenotype between that of either homozygote; hair is an example
    Incomplete dominance
  47. Blood type is determined by _________
    multiple alleles
  48. AA
    Type A blood type
  49. BB
    Type B blood type
  50. OO
    Type O blood type
  51. A male always receives a sex-linked trait from his mother
    When he inherited the X chromosome
  52. Genetic counselors often construct _____ to determine whether a disorder is dominant or recesive
    Pedigree Charts
  53. _____ is disease that results from a lack of _____ enzyme Hex A
    • Tay-Sachs
    • Lysosomal
  54. Lysosomes fill to capacity with ______ that cannot be broken down, the cells become so full that the child dies
  55. ______ is when mucus in the bronchial tubes and pancreatic ducts is very thick and viscous
    Cystic Fibrosis
  56. Research shows Cl- ions fail to pass through plasma membrane channel proteins in cells in ______
    Cystic Fibrosis
  57. _____ individuals lack an enzyme that is needed for the normal metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine
    abnormal breakdown product, phenylketone accumulates in the urine
    Phenylketonuria (PKU)
  58. small benign tumors called neurofibromas that arise from the fibrous coverings of nerves develop
    Gene 17 controls the productions of protein called neurofibromin that normally blocks growth signals leading to cell division
  59. ______ is the neurological disorder that leads to progressive degeneration of brain cells. that in turn causes severe muscle spasms and personality disorders
    Huntington Disease
  60. ______ is this disorder is controlled by incompletely dominant alleles
    Sickle Cell Disease
  61. If a male has an X-linked recessive condition his daughter are _______ - appear normal but can pass on allele for a genetic disorder
  62. Recessive alleles on the X chromosomes are always expressed in males since Y chromosome does not have a corresponding allele
  63. Color blind people were used during the wars as a benefit to spot camoflauge camps
  64. ______ is characterized by a wasting away of the muscles
    Muscular Dystrophy
  65. The recessive allele is remains in the population through passage from carrier mother to carrier daughter
    Muscular Dystrophy
  66. Hemophilia A-absence of clotting factor VIII
    Hemophilia B-absence of clotting factor IX
  67. _____ consist of the brain and spinal cord
    Central Nervous System (CNS)
  68. ______ consists of nerves that carry info to the CNS
    Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  69. ______ support and nurish neurons
  70. There are three classes of neurons:
    • 1. Sensory neurons
    • 2. Interneurons
    • 3. Motor neurons
  71. _____ take nerve impulses to the CNS
    Sensory neurons
  72. _____ sum up nerve impulses recieved from sensory neurons before relaying with motor neurons
  73. _____ take nerve impulses away from the CNS to effectors
    Motor neurons
  74. ______ carry out our responses to environmental changes
  75. _____ contains the nucleus and organelles
    A cell body
  76. _____ receive signals
  77. ____ conducts nerve impulses
  78. A type of neurogilia called ______ form the myelin sheath
    Schwann cells
  79. _____ means the axon is NOT conducting an impulse
    Resting potential
  80. A membrane protein that actively transports Na out and K into the axon
  81. Distribution of ions is due to a sodium-potassium pump
  82. _____ means the axon is conducting an impulse
    Action potential
  83. during depolarization Na moves inside the axon
    during repolarization K moves outside the axon
  84. As soon as an action potential moves on, the previous portion undergoes a ______- during which the Na gates are unable to open
    • refractory period
    • this ensures the action potential only moves forward
  85. A ____ is a gap between neurons
  86. Transmission across a synapse is carried out by _______
  87. ACh and NE are the most well known neurotransmitters
  88. Each portion causes an action potential in the next portion of an axon
  89. Both the spinal cord and brain are protected by bone and _______
    meninges (protective membranes)
  90. Spaces between the meninges are filled with ______ which cushions and protects the CNS
    Cerebrospinal fluid
  91. Composed of two types of nervous tissue
    • 1. Grey matter- cell bodies and nonmyelinated fibers
    • 2. White matter- myelinated axons
  92. ____protects the spinal cord
  93. The function of the spinal cord
    • means between the brain and the body
    • also a center for reflex actions
  94. The _____ is the largest portion of the brain
  95. _____ is a region of the brain that accounts for sensation, voluntary movement and thought process associated with consciousness
    Cerebral Cortex
  96. _____ is the frontal lobe; voluntary commands to the skeletal muscles begin here
    Primary motor area
  97. ______ is the parietal lobe; sensory info from the skin and skeletal muscle arrives here
    Primary somatosensory area
  98. _____ is a motor speech area in the left frontal lobe
    Broca's area
  99. _____ helps maintain homeostasis by regulating hunger, sleep, thirst, body temp and H2O balance
  100. _____ serves as a link between the nervous and endocrine systems
  101. ______ receiving end for all sensory input except smell; also invovled in memory and emotions
  102. ______ recieves sensory input from the eyes, ears, joints, and muslce about the present position of the boyd parts
    ______ assists in the learning of new motor skills
    • Cerebellum
    • Cerebellum
  103. The brain stem contains:
    • midbrains
    • pons
    • medulla oblongata
  104. _____ has reflex centers for visual, auditory and tactile responses
  105. _____ helps regulate breathing rate and has reflex centers concerned with head movements
  106. _____ contains reflex centers for regulating heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure, vomitng, coughing, sneezing, hiccupping, and swallowing
    Medulla oblongata
  107. Reticular activating system causes a person to be alert
  108. ____ in the temperal lobe; makes the prefrontal area aware of past experiences
  109. _____ can cause past experiences to have emotion
  110. Learning takes place when we retain and utillize past memories
  111. ____ are a budle of axons called nerve fibers
  112. The PNS is divided into the somatic system and the autonomic system
  113. ______ serves the skin, skeletal muscles and tendons
    Somatic System
  114. Involuntary reflexes allow to respond rapidly to external stimuli
  115. ______ regulates the activity of cardiac and smooth muscle and glands
  116. The system is divided into the symathetic and parasympatetic
    • 1. the function automatically and usually in an involuntary manner
    • 2. they innervate all internal organs
  117. Sympathetic division brings about responses associated with fight or flight
    • it accelerates the heartbeat and dilates the bronchi
    • inhibits the digestive tract
    • primarily releases the neurotransmitter NE
  118. _____ brings about the responses associated with a relaxed state
    Parasympathetic division
  119. Drug usually have two effects
    • 1. they impact the limbic system
    • 2. either promote or decrease the action of a particular neurotransmitter
  120. ____ is used as an energy source, and as such will decrease the rate at which we burn fat for energy
  121. In the CNS _____ causes neuorns to release dopamine
  122. _____ prevents uptake of dopamine causing the user to experience a rush sensation
  123. _____ binds to receptors meant for the endorphins
  124. _____ binds to a receptor for anadamide
  125. _____ attaches to dopamine and NE receptors, hinders reuptake
    _____ reverses effects of fatigue
  126. _____ is the gradual loss of reason that begins with memory lapses and ends with the inability to perform daily activties
    Alzheimer disease
  127. During Alzheimers Disease the neurons have 2 abnormalities
    • 1. plaques envelope the axon
    • 2. neurofibrillary tangles are in the axons
  128. During _____, the basil nuclei are overactive because of degeneration of dopamine-releasing neurons
    Parkinson disease
  129. The male gonads are the _____ which are located in the _______
    • testes
    • scrotum
  130. The testes produce ____
  131. Sperm mature in the ______ and then move to the _______
    • Epididymis
    • Vas deferens
  132. 3 structures add secretions to seminal fluid:
    • 1. Seminal vesicles: at base of bladder
    • 2. prostate gland: surrounds the urethra
    • 3. bulbourethral glands: organs lie posterior to prostate
  133. Each component of seminal fluid is required for a particular function
    • 1. Seminal fluid has a basic pH: sperm is viable in basic solution
    • 2. Seminal fluid contains fructose: sperm need energy
    • 3. Semen also contains prostaglandins: uterus to contract
  134. During sexual arousal ______ is produced and erectile tissue fills with blood
  135. Sperm counts can be low and still achieve fertilization
  136. The testes lie outside the body cavity within the _____
  137. ____ is the inability to produce offspring
  138. The internal temperature of the body is too high to produce viable sperm
  139. The scrotum helps regulate the temperature of the testes
  140. Mature sperm has three distinct parts
    • Head
    • Middle piece
    • Tail
  141. The ______ contains the mitochondria of the sperm
    • Middle piece
    • emergy movement of the tail
  142. The ____ contains an acrosome of the sperm
    • Head
    • stores enzymes needed to penetrate the egg
  143. In males the _____ promotes production of sperm
    FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)
  144. In males the _____ controls the production fo testosterone
    LH (luteinizing hormone)
  145. _____ is the main sex hormone in males
  146. _____ is essential for normal development; brings about and maintains the male secondary sex caracteristics
  147. The female gonads are the _____
  148. ____ is the process by which an egg burst from an ovary
  149. The oviducts have fingerlike projections called _____
  150. The ____ is a thick-walled muscular oragan
  151. Fertilization usually takes place in the _____
  152. _____ is when the embryo embeds into the prepared uterine lining
  153. _____ is collectively known as the vulva
    External genitalia
  154. The ____ is the organ of the sexual arousal and contains erectile tissue
  155. Ooctes are present at birth, so they age with the female
  156. During the _____ phase- FSH promotes the development of a follicle in the ovary-secretes estrogen
    Follicular phase
  157. During the _____phase-LH promotes the development of the corpus luteum-secretes progesterone
    Luteal phase
  158. As the luteal phase comes to an end, menstruation occurs
  159. Day ___: ovulation occurs
  160. Estrogen and Progesterone:
    • 1. shut down anterior pituitary
    • 2. maintain the endometrium
    • 3. responsible for secondary sex characteristics
  161. ______ is a small piece of molded plastic that is inserted into the uterus by a physician
    IUD (Intrauterine device)
  162. _____ is a latex cup that lodges behind the pubic bone and sits over the cervix
  163. _____ uses synthetic progesterone to prevent ovulation
    Contraceptive implants
  164. _____ is the failure of a couple to achieve pregnancy after 1 year of regular, unprotected intercourse
  165. The most common causes of infertility in females the most common causes are blocked oviducts, endometriosis and weight
  166. _____ is the presence of uterine tissue outside of the uterus in the oviducts and on the abdominal organs
  167. In males the most frequent causes of infertility is low sperm count and/or a large proportion of abnormal sperm
  168. A variation of AID is intrauterine insemination (IUI)
  169. During meiosis I the _____ line up during a process known as synapis
    Homologous chromosomes
  170. How many daughter cells are present at the end of meiosis II?
  171. In what ways can meiosis assure new genetic combinations occur in offspring?
    • Crossing-over
    • Gametes have different combinations of chromosomes that parent cells
    • Recombintion of chromosomes occurs during fertilization
  172. What is the nature of the daughter cells following meiosis II?
    4 haploid (n) cells
  173. Oogenesis results in the production of _____
    1 haploid (n) egg cell, 2-3 polar bodies
  174. The correct number of chromosomes found in a gamete (egg or sperm) is _______?
  175. _____ is a procedure for obtaining a sample of amniotic fluid from the uterus of a pregnant woman, which increase the risk for spontaneous abortions by about .3%
  176. An abnormal chromosome makeup in an individual can be due to nondisjunction which can occur during ______
    • meiosis I
    • meiosis II
  177. The sex chromosomal genetype of an individual who has Turner syndrome is ______; these females have underdeveloped ovaries, do not undergo puberty, and have only one sex chromosomes.
  178. ______ refers to the genes of an individual.
  179. A recessive allele must be received from both parents to bring about on autosomal recessive phenotype.
  180. Multifactorial inheritance has an additive effect that results in a continuous variation of phenotypes.
  181. In Tay-Sachs disease, individuals lack the enzyme Hex A, and their lysosomes fill to capacity with ____ that cannot be broken down resulting in death.
  182. More males have X-linked recessive disorders because the Y chromosome lacks the corresponding allele.
  183. A myelin sheath is formed when Schwann cells wrap pieces of their plasma membranes around an axon
  184. _____ is found in the frontal lobe and is the origination point of voluntary commands sent to the skeletal muscles.
    Primary motor area
  185. The ____ is found within the limbic system and causes the prefrontal area to be aware of past experiences.
  186. Nicotine is quickly delivered to the nervous system where it causes neurons to release ______
  187. Basal nuclei that become overactive because of degerneration of dopamine-releasing neurons are characteristic of which of the following neurodegenerative disorders?
  188. Aside from energy, sugar, and a basic pH, seminal fluid also has ______ which causes uterine contractions, possibly aiding the journey of sperm cells to the egg.
  189. The normal site of fertilization within the female body is the _____
  190. During the _____ phase, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) promotes the development of a follicle inthe ovary which secretes estrogen and progesterone.
  191. Estrogen and progesterone _______
    • Shut down the anterior pituitary preventing further follicle development
    • Maintain the endometriem for the implanted embryo
    • Are responsible for secondary sex characteristics and breast development
  192. An IUD is inserted into the _____ and is believed to alter the environment so that fertilization will not likely occur