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is the local temperature, precipitation, wind speed, etc. usually measured in hours or days.
...is an area’s atmospheric conditions measured on a time scale of thousands of years. Global air and ocean currents distribute heat and precipitation in an uneven pattern around the globe, which causes
the climate variation we see.
Air circulation across the planet is determined by:
- 1. uneven heating of the earth’s surfac
- 2. rotation of the earth of its axis
- 3. cyclical convection cells that circulate air, heat, and moisture globally
Ocean ____are created by winds blowing over surface water, which then causes mass movement of water on huge scales.
This movement of currents redistributes heat from the sun, which influences vegetation and climate example?
think about the Gulf Stream that carries heat from Florida all the way to northwestern Europe
Differences in water temperature caused by these variable wind patterns result in ...
differences in water density, creating both warm and cold current conditions
Land mass shapes and prevailing winds cause ...
- currents to flow in circular patterns between continents, clockwise in the northern
- hemisphere and counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere.
Heat is distributed from the tropics to the poles by a loop created when cold, dense seawater sinks at the poles, allowing ...
warmer, less dense water from the equator to flow above and replace it.
There are two major links between the ocean and the atmosphere:....
. El Niño is an example of these links. As prevailing winds in the tropical Pacific Ocean weaken and change direction, the food base for thousands of marine species and two-thirds of the earth’s weather are directly affected.
- 1) ocean currents are affected by winds in the atmosphere; and
- 2) atmospheric circulation of air is affected heat from the ocean
Figure 7-6. Heat and moisture are distributed in an irregular pattern around the planet by 6 ___ ____ ____, three north of the equator and three south, which give rise to the planet’s terrestrial biomes
giant convention cells
____ ____ are..., water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide
(N2O), allow visible light, some infrared radiation (IR), and
ultraviolet radiation (UV) to reach the Earth’s surface.
This solar energy is transformed into heat and rises into the lower atmosphere, where the greenhouse gases absorb the heat and convert it to longer wavelength IR. This released energy warms the lower atmosphere and earth’s surface. This natural process, called the....
Greenhouse effect is also...
is responsible for a warm Earth that can sustain life.
Human activities (burning fossil fuels, clearing forests) are increasing the amount of ___ ___ in the atmosphere and are apparently enhancing the greenhouse effect.
Human enhanced global warming is expected to alter...
- precipitation patterns, raise sea levels, alter the global distribution
- of plants and animals, and shift the location of productive
- agricultural land.
The____ ____ ____ (Figure 7-7) is an example of how Earth’s surface features affect weather.
Moist air from the ocean is forced upward by mountains, resulting in cooling and expansion, and the loss of moisture as rain or snow. Dry air descends the other side of the mountain taking up moisture from the surface, resulting in extremely arid conditions. Deserts (example: Death Valley) often form on the leeward side of mountains because of the loss of moisture on the windward mountain slopes.
rain shadow effect
So, the climate of an area is most affected by:
- 1) the heating of the Earth’s surface by solar radiation;
- 2) wind patterns and ocean currents;
- 3) greenhouse gases; 4) earth’s rotation; and 5) surface features.
A _____(forest, desert, etc.) is characterized by similar climate, soil, plants, and animals. The variety of biomes is a major contributor to the Earth’s biodiversity
A biome can contain many ecosystems. Variation within a biome results from ...
the distribution of resources, as well as latitude and elevation, which cause variations in precipitation and temperature.
_____ are defined by low annual precipitation. A lack of vegetation and moisture allows solar energy stored in the soil during the day to be lost quickly at night, so most exhibit large diel differences in temperature.
____ deserts (example: Sahara, Africa) have hot temperatures and low precipitation all year, few plants, and a rocky surface with some sand.
_____ deserts (example: Mojave, United States) have high daytime temperatures in summer, but moderate temperatures in winter, with more precipitation and sparse vegetation (shrubs, cacti).
___deserts (example: Gobi, Mongolia) have very cold winters, warm summers, low precipitation, and sparse vegetation
Desert ecosystems are ____and very susceptible to human perturbation because of their slow plant growth, low species diversity, slow nutrient cycling (low bacterial activity), and a lack of moisture.