lecture test #2

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lecture test #2
2010-10-20 00:20:53
cranial nerves senses

lecture test #2
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  1. List the 3 sensory nerves
    • Olfactoy (#1)
    • Optic (#2)
    • Auditory (#8)
  2. List the 5 motor nerves
    • Ocularmotor (#3)
    • Trochlear (#4)
    • Abducens (#6)
    • Spinal accessory (#11)
    • Hypogossal (#12)
  3. List the 4 cranial nerves that are both sensory and motor
    • Trigiminal (#5)
    • Facial (#7)
    • Glossalpharyngeal (#9)
    • vagus (#10)
  4. A nerve cell is called a
  5. Approximately how many neurons does the human brain have
    100 billion
  6. How much does the average human brain weigh?
    3.2 lbs
  7. The ____________ contains the various organelles of the nerve cell.
    Nerve cell body
  8. The nucleus controls
    The functions of the cell
  9. The ______ transmits the nerve impulse away from the nerve cell body.
  10. The white polysaccharide sheath which surrounds some neurons
  11. The space between two neurons is called the
  12. _________ transport the impulse towards the nerve cell body.
  13. _________ are linings that cover the brain and spinal cord.
  14. Inflammation of the meninges is called
  15. The speed at which a nerve impulse travels
    100 meters per second
  16. True of false: meningitis may be viral or bacterial.
  17. What is the name of the outer most meninge?
    • Dura mater
    • (tough mother)
  18. The middle of the 3 meninges is
    • The arachnoid membrane
    • (looks like a spiders web)
  19. The sheer thin delicate membrane which covers every nook and cranny of the brain (the inner most meninge)
    Pia mater
  20. A raise on the surface of the brain:
    • Gyrus
    • Gyri (plural)
  21. A depression on the brain:
    • Sulcus
    • sulci (plural)
  22. Cavities in the brain are called
  23. Name the 4 ventricles
    • Right & left lateral ventricles
    • The third ventricle
    • & the fourth ventricle
  24. The duct which connects the third and fourth ventricles us called
    • The aqueduct of Sylvius
    • or cerebral aqueduct
  25. Hydrocephalus is
    Fluid on the brain
  26. What is the hard tissue which surrounds the ventricle structure, through which nerve impulses pass as they go from one cerebral hemisphere to the other side of the body?
    • Corpus callosum
    • (hard body)
  27. The function of the Pons is
  28. Respiration, cough & vomit reflexes are functions of the
    Medulla oblongata
  29. The function of the cerebellum is
    The coordination of skeletal muscles resulting in balance.
  30. Name the lobes of the brain
    • Frontal
    • Parietal (2)
    • Temporal (2)
    • Occipital
  31. The frontal lobe is responsible for
    • Olfaction
    • Memory (short & long term)
    • & Personality
  32. Sensory is processed in which lobe(s) of the brain?
    The parietal lobes
  33. Vision is processed in which lobe(s) of the brain?
    The occipital lobe
  34. Audition (hearing) is processed in which lobe(s) of the brain?
    The temporal lobes
  35. There are how many cranial nerves?
    12 pair
  36. Cranial nerve #1
    Olfactory nerve
  37. Olfactory nerve: function & type
    • olfaction
    • Sensory
  38. Cranial nerve #2
    Optic nerve
  39. Optic nerve: function & type
    • vision
    • Sensory
  40. Cranial nerve #3
    Ocularmotor nerve
  41. Ocularmotor nerve: function & type
    • moves eye
    • Motor
  42. Cranial nerve #4
    Trochlear nerve
  43. Trochlear nerve: function & type
    • moves eye
    • Motor
  44. Cranial nerve #5
    Trigiminal nerve
  45. Trigiminal nerve: function & type
    • eye movement & some facial muscles
    • Sensory & Motor
  46. Cranial nerve #6
    Abduscens nerve
  47. Abduscens nerve function & type
    • eye movement
    • Motor
  48. Cranial nerve #7
    Facial nerve
  49. Facial nerve: function & type
    • stimulates muscles of expression & masticating muscles (chewing)
    • Sensory & Motor
  50. Cranial nerve #8
    Auditory nerve
  51. Auditory nerve: function & type
    • Audition
    • Sensory
  52. Cranial nerve #9
    Glossopharyngeal nerve
  53. Glossopharyngeal nerve: function & type
    • moves tongue & throat muscles
    • Sensory & Motor
  54. Cranial nerve #10
    Vagus nerve
  55. Vagus nerve: function & type
    • stimulates heart to beat
    • Sensory & Motor
  56. Cranial nerve #11
    Spinal accessory nerve
  57. Spinal accessory nerve: function & type
    • stimulates muscles of upper body trunk
    • Motor
  58. Cranial nerve #12
    Hypoglosso nerve
  59. Hypoglosso nerve function & type:
    controls tongue movementMotor
  60. The central nervous system (CNS) is comprised of
    The brain and spinal cord
  61. Name 4 diseases of the central nervous system (CNS):
    • Herpes
    • Tetanus
    • Rabies
    • Polio
  62. Herpes simplex I is
    • Oral sores outside of the mouth (cold sores, fever blisters)
    • Caused by Stress or UV light
    • Has no cure
  63. Herpes simplex II is
    • Genital sores
    • Asymptomatic in females
    • Symptomatic in males
    • Treatable, not curable
  64. Tetanus is caused by what bacteria?
    Clostridium tetani
  65. Another name for tetanus is
    Lock jaw
  66. Clostridium tetani is a ____ bacterium.
  67. Tetanus produces a
  68. A neurotoxin infects
  69. A neurotoxin effects
  70. The tetanus neurotoxin infects the
    Glossopharyngeal (phrenic) nerve
  71. The tetanus neurotoxin effects the _______ causing suffocation.
  72. Name the two types of tetanus prevention
    • Tetanus antitoxin
    • & tetanus toxoid
  73. Tetanus antitoxin-
    • Preformed tetanus antibodies
    • (from humans or horses)
    • Lasts 6 months to a year
  74. Tetanus toxoid-
    • Inactivated tetanus toxin
    • Stimulates the body to produce antibodies
    • 5-10 years average 7 years
  75. Rabies is caused by the
    Rhabdo virus
  76. The "fingerprints" for rabies are called
  77. Rabies is spread through
    The bite of an infected mammal
  78. The chances of contracting rabies are lessened
    • The farther the bite is from the head
    • & if bitten through clothing
  79. Rabies is what type of virus? Meaning it likes body temperature of about 98.6 degrees.
  80. The rabies vaccine is
    • 1 shot into the abdominal fluid
    • Contains preformed antibodies
  81. Polio is caused by the
    Picorna virus
  82. Polio typically effects only
    One side of the body
  83. Polio causes a lateral curvature of the vertebral column called
  84. The first polio vaccine injection was invented by
    Jonas Salk
  85. Louis Sabin invented
    The oral polio vaccine
  86. Polio produces a
  87. The eye is protected by (8 things):
    The glabella, eyelashes, eyebrows, eyelids, lacrimal fluid, immunoglobulin A (IgA antibody), zygomatic bone, & nose
  88. The transparent layer over the front of the eye through which light enters is called the
  89. The white layer of the eye is called the
  90. The middle layer of the eye, where the blood vessels are located is called the
    Choroid layer
  91. The inner most layer of the eyeball
  92. Function of the retina
    • Has light receptors
    • (rods & cones)
  93. Ratio of rods to cones
    • 14:1
    • 14 rods to 1 cone
  94. Rods perceive
  95. Cones perceive
  96. The area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing the most light receptors
    Fovea centralis
  97. The area of the retina at which the optic nerve attaches possessing no light receptors
    Blind spot
  98. The nerve which carriers the information from the eye ball to the brain
    • The optic nerve
    • (cranial nerve #II)
  99. The fixed hole in the middle of the eye is the
  100. The pigmented portion of the eye, which responds to light
  101. The area from cornea to lens which is filled with aqueous humor
    Anterior cavity (chamber)
  102. The area from lens to retina which is filled with virtuous humor
    Posterior cavity (chamber)
  103. The clear colorless transparent jelly that fills the posterior chamber of the eyeball and maintains it's shape
    Vitreous humor
  104. The clear watery fluid located between the cornea and the lens of the eye
    Aqueous humor
  105. The biconvex transparent body situated behind the iris in the eye which causes light waves to converge
    The lens
  106. Some disorders of the eye include (6):
    • Myopia
    • Hyperopia
    • Astigmatism
    • Color blindness
    • Cataracts
    • A stye
  107. A stye is:
    An inflammation of the sebaceous gland of the eyelid, causing increased sebum production.
  108. Lens degeneration caused by: old age, high sunlight, uv light, trauma, or diabetes
  109. A sex linked genetic defect which effects 4% of males and 1% of females carried on the X chromosome
    Color blindness
  110. With what eye abnormality does the image want to focus just beyond the fovea centralis
  111. With what eye abnormality does the image want to focus just in front of the fovea centralis
  112. Hyperopia is caused by:
    • Genetics or
    • Atrophy of the eye
    • (lack of nourishment)
  113. Farsightedness is called
  114. Hyperopia is characterized by
    The eye can see things far, but, not things close, clearly
  115. The biological term for ear wax is
  116. The ear possesses what type of glands which produce ear wax
    Ceruminous glands
  117. To correct myopia you would wear what type of lens
  118. Myopia maybe caused by:
    • Genetics or
    • Trauma
    • (viral or bacterial infection or physical injury)
  119. To correct hyperopia you would wear what type of lens
  120. Myopia is characterized by
    The eye can see things close, but, not things far, clearly.
  121. Nearsightedness is called
  122. An astigmatism is:
    An imperfection associated with the edge of the lens
  123. List the 3 parts of the external ear
    • Pinna
    • External auditory meatus
    • Tympanic membrane
  124. List the 3 parts of the middle ear
    • Malleus (hammer)
    • Incus (anvil)
    • Stapes (stirrup)
    • (The 3 smallest bones)
  125. List the 2 parts of the internal ear
    • Cochlea (shell)
    • Semi-circular canals
  126. The external part of the ear which gathers sound waves
  127. The canal through which sound waves are funneled
    External auditory meatus
  128. The tympanic membrane is the
    Ear drum
  129. The round window goes from the middle ear to the pharynx by way of
    The eustachian tube
  130. The ________ converts sound waves into electrical impulses transferring them to the temporal lobe of the brain for audition.
  131. The semi circular canals have
    Ciliated neurons & endolymph
  132. Endolymph is
    The freely moving fluid which fills the inner ear
  133. What drains excessive tears from the lacrimal duct into the nose
    Nasolacrimal duct
  134. You have on average how many taste buds?
  135. Taste buds are:
    The receptors for taste, located on the first 2 thirds of the dorsal side of the tongue