Hormones (Origins, Class, and Functions)

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Adam
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41661
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Hormones (Origins, Class, and Functions)
Updated:
2010-10-12 19:27:01
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Animal Physiology Test
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For each of the listed hormones, Tell what endocrine tissue it comes from, what class of molecule it is, and its function.
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  1. Aldosterone
    From Adrenal Cortex; Steroid; Stimulates Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion in kidney
  2. Androgens
    From Adrenal Cortex; Steroid; Act one bone to cause growth spurt at puberty. Increases sex drive in females by action on brain
  3. Glucocorticoids (Cortisol, Cortisone, Corticosterone)
    From Adrenal Cortex; Steroid; part of stress response. Affect metabolism of many tissues to increase blood glucose and cause protein and fat catabolism
  4. Epinephrine
    From Adrenal Medulla; Catecholamine; Part of stress response. Reinforce sympathetic nervous system. Influence cardiovascular function and organic metabolism of many tissues
  5. Norepinephrine
    From Adrenal Medulla; Catecholamine; Part of stress response. Reinforce sympathetic nervous system. Influence cardiovascular function and organic metabolism of many tissues
  6. Prolactin (PRL)
    From Anterior Pituitary gland; Peptide; Promotes development of mammary gland during pregnancy. Stimulates milk synthesis and secretion during lactation. Promotes caring for young by both males and females in many species of fish, birds, and mammals.
  7. Growth Hormone (GH, somatotropin)
    From Anterior Pituitary gland; Peptide; Stimulates growth and metabolism of bone and soft tissue. Promotes protein synthesis, glucose conservation, and fat mobilization. Stimulates secretion of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs, also called somatomedins) by liver.
  8. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
    From Anterior Pituitary Gland; Peptide; In mammals, also produced in hypothalamus. Reduces appetite, suppresses immune system. Does not determine skin coloration. (Causes skin darkening in amphibians, nonavian reptiles, and fish by stimulating dispersal of granules containing the pigment melanin)
  9. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, corticotropin)
    From Anterior Pituitary Gland; Peptide; Stimulates glucocorticoid secretion by adrenal cortex and supports adrenal cortical tissue (tropic action)
  10. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, Thyrotropin)
    From Anterior Pituitary; Peptide; Stimulates hormone synthesis and secretion by thyroid gland. Is tropic.
  11. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
    From Anterior Pituitary Gland; Peptide; Stimulates sperm production in testis, follicular growth in the ovary, and sex hormone production in male and female gonads. Is tropic.
  12. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
    From Anterior Pituitary Gland; Peptide; Stimulates sex hormone production in male and female gonads, ovulation, and development of corpus luteum. Is tropic.
  13. Gamma-Lipotropin and Beta-Endorphin
    From Anterior Pituitary Gland; Peptide; Possibly decrease perception of pain
  14. Osteocalcin
    From Bone Osteoblasts; Peptide; Regulates metabolism by increasing secretion of insulin, reducing fat storage by adipose cells, and increasing sensitivity of body's cells to insulin (demonstrated in mice)
  15. Leptin
    From Fat (White Adipose) Tissue; Peptide; Influences food intake (promotes weight loss), metabolic rate, and reproductive functions. Regulates bone remodeling
  16. Adipokines (adiponectin, apelin, vaspin)
    From Fat (White Adipose) Tissue; Peptide; Influence metabolism, inflammation, cardiovascular functions
  17. Stomach Hormones (Gastrin and Ghrelin)
    From the Gastrointestinal Tract (GI tract); Peptides; Aid in digestion and absorption of nutrients by various actions on GI Tract, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder
  18. Small Intestine Hormones (secretin, cholecystokinin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), motilin)
    From Gastrointestinal Tract (GI Tract); peptides; Aid in digestion and absorption of nutrients by various actions on GI Tract, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder
  19. Estrogen
    From the Gonads; Steroid; Promote maturation of follicle, ovulation, and secondary sex characteristics. Prepare the uterus for pregnancy by actions during estrous and menstrual cycles. Promote closure of epiphyseal growth plate of bone
  20. Progesterone
    From the Gonads; Steroid; Prepares the uterus for pregnancy
  21. Inhibin
    From the Gonads; Peptide; Inhibits secretion of FSH from anterior pituitary in males and females
  22. Activins
    From the Gonads; Peptide; Stimulates secretion of FSH. Promotes Spermatogenesis and follicle development
  23. Relaxin
    From the Gonads; Peptide; May make cervix and pelvic ligaments more pliable
  24. Mullerian-Inhibiting Hormone
    From the Gonads; Peptide; Functions in male fetal development
  25. Androgens
    From the Gonads; Steroid; Promote sperm production and secondary sexual characteristics. Promote sex drive in males. Enhance growth at puberty. Promote closure of epiphyseal plate of bone
  26. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)
    From the Heart (cells in Atria); Peptide; Promotes Na+ and water excretion in kidney
  27. Releasing and Inhibiting Hormones
    From the Hypothalamus; Peptide; Stimulate or Inhibit secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. Releasing hormones are tropic
  28. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH)
    From the Hypothalamus; Peptide; Stimulates secretion of ACTH
  29. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH)
    From the Hypothalamus; peptide; Stimulates secretion of TSH and prolactin
  30. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH)
    From the Hypothalamus; Peptide; Stimulates secretion of growth hormone
  31. Somatostatin (SS, GHIH)
    From the Hypothalamus; Peptide; Inhibits secretion of Growth Hormone
  32. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
    From the Hypothalamus; Peptide; Stimulates secretion of FSH and LH
  33. Dopamine (DA, prolactin-inhibiting hormone)
    From the Hypothalamus; Not a Peptide; Inhibits the secretion of prolactin
  34. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone-inhibiting hormone (MSH-IH)
    From the Hypothalamus; Peptide; Inhibits secretion of MSH
  35. Orexins
    From the Hypothalamus; Peptide; Promotes wakefulness. Modulates reward pathways. Stimulates food intake
  36. Renin
    From the Kidney; Peptide; Cleaves angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I
  37. Erythropoietin (EPO)
    From the Kidney; Peptide; Stimulates red blood cell production in bone marrow
  38. Calcitriol (active form of Vitamin D)
    From the Kidney; Steroid; Increases body calcium
  39. Angiotensinogen
    From the Liver; Peptide; Converted in blood to angiotensin II, which stimulates aldosterone secretion, promotes thirst, and causes vasoconstriction and secretion of vasopressin
  40. Insulin-like Growth Factors (also called Somatomedins)
    From the Liver; Peptide; Promote cell division and growth of many tissues (IGFs are also secreted by other tissues, such as muscle)
  41. Insulin (Beta cells)
    From the Pancreas (Endocrine Cells); Peptide; Promotes uptake and storage of nutrients by most cells
  42. Glucagon (Alpha cells)
    From the Pancreas (Endocrine Cells); Peptide; Maintains blood levels of nutrients after a meal and during stress
  43. Somatostatin (Gamma cells)
    From the Pancreas (Endocrine Cells); Peptide; Inhibits digestion and absorption of nutrients by the GI Tract
  44. Parathyroid Hormone
    From the Parathyroid gland; Peptide; Increases Ca2+ and decreases plasma phosphate levels in the blood by action on kidney and bone. Stimulates vitamin D activation by action at kidney, bone, and intestine
  45. Melatonin
    Pineal Gland; Amine; Controls circadian rhythms. Seasonal breeding, migration, hibernation. Possibly sexual maturity. Causes skin lightening in amphibians and lampreys
  46. Estrogens and Progesterone
    From the Placenta of pregnant female mammals; Steroids; Support pregnancy and fetal and maternal development
  47. Chorionic Gonadotropin
    From the Placenta of pregnant female mammals; Peptide; Extends functional life of corpus luteum in ovary (horses and primates)
  48. Relaxin
    From the Placenta of pregnant female mammals; Peptide; May make cervix and pelvic ligaments more pliable
  49. Placental Lactogen
    From the Placenta of pregnant female mammals; Peptide; May support mammary gland development during pregnancy. May change maternal metabolism to support fetus
  50. Vasopressins (ADH)
    From the Posterior Pituitary Gland; Peptides (produced in hypothalamus and transported to posterior pituitary; Regulate water reabsorption at kidney. vasoconstriction
  51. Oxytocin
    From the Posterior Pituitary Gland; Peptides (produced in hypothalamus and transported to posterior pituitary; Stimulates uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection from mammary glands during suckling
  52. Vitamin D
    From the Skin; Steroid; Increases body Calcium when activated
  53. Thymosin
    From the Thymus gland; Peptide; Stimulates T-lymphocyte development and proliferation
  54. Thymopoietin
    From the Thymus gland; Peptide; Stimulates T-lymphocyte development and proliferation
  55. Thyroxine (T3/T4)
    From the Thyroid gland; Iodinated Amines; Increase metabolism of many tissues. Necessary for normal growth and development of the nervous system
  56. Calcitonin
    From the Thyroid Gland; Peptide; Decreases blood Ca2+ levels in some animals by action on bone (secreted by C cells)

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